Among cancer diseases diagnosed in women, breast cancer occupies one of the leading positions. It accounts for about 22% of all neoplasms.
Cancer can be detected only in 2 or 3 stages of the pathological process when examined by a specialist.
Stages of breast cancer in women
- 1 Stages of breast cancer in women
- 2 Breast cancer causes and signs
- 3 Treatment of breast cancer
Modern medicine classifies a newly discovered tumor, based on its size, the location and location of axillary lymph nodes. Important is the availability of distant metastases, which indicate the transition of the disease to the 4th stage.
- 0 stage, called non-invasive. The pathological process does not go beyond the limits of the affected lobe or duct. In the patient of
, there are changes in axillary lymph nodes. The prognosis is favorable with timely diagnosis and treatment.
- 1 stage of breast cancer. In this case, neoplasms grow through the surrounding tissues. This stage, as well as all subsequent ones, is called invasive. The diameter does not exceed 2 cm.
- Breast cancer is the 2nd stage. Experts identify a tumor with a size exceeding 2-cm in diameter. In this case, lesions of lymph nodes can be noted at small( up to 2 cm) tumor size. Sometimes, in the lymph nodes there are no changes characteristic of this stage, but the size of the lesion is from 2 to 5 cm. In the first case, the pathological process is called 2A, in the second - 2B.
- Breast cancer 3 stage .Noticeable large neoplasms, an increase in lymph nodes. Oncologists assert that the appearance of conglomerates( soldered together or with the surrounding subcutaneous tissue of the lymph nodes) invariably testifies to the onset of the third stage of the pathological process.
- Breast cancer 4 stage .It differs from other degrees of cancer by the appearance of distant metastases. At this stage, breast cancer and metastasis in the liver, lungs or bones are often identified.
Prognosis in patients with breast cancer about survival: during the first five years with timely diagnosis and treatment, about 50% of patients survive.
Breast cancer causes and signs
Based on lengthy clinical studies, several of the most common causes of cancer have been identified. So, the risk of breast cancer increases several times with:
- Genetic predisposition. The previously revealed pathology in close relatives increases the risk of developing the disease by 2-5 times.
- The presence of an ovarian or uterus neoplasm in the patient's history( http: //vcmed.ru/ mioma-matki-simptomy-i-priznaki /) also increases the chances of developing breast cancer. Especially, if as a result of the survey, the hormone-dependent nature of the tumor was established.
- Age category. The number of diagnosed breast cancer in women at the age of 20 is minimal and reaches its maximum by 80-85 years. So in 80 years oncology was detected in 300 patients from 100 thousand of women surveyed.
- Previously suffered mastitis and other lesions of the mammary gland in the patient's history.
- Obesity. It is established that fatty tissue is capable of producing aggressive substances that adversely affect the reproductive system.
- Abortion and long-term use of contraceptives;
- Absence of pregnancies, late menopause, etc.
Many women are interested in how does breast cancer look and whether it can be diagnosed by yourself? The optimal solution will be regular examinations at the mammologist, allowing timely to establish the onset of the pathological process and after an examination to begin effective treatment.
But if a woman does not have the opportunity to periodically visit a specialist, then she needs to know how to determine breast cancer herself. For this, attention should be paid to the characteristic symptoms accompanying the growth of the neoplasm. Among the most common signs are:
- Isolation of pus;
- Changing the shape of the breast can be considered one of the first signs of breast cancer;
- An omission of the breast and a pronounced asymmetry of the nipple;
- Retracted nipple and discoloration of the skin around it;
- Pain and local body temperature increase;
- Sealing in the chest and enlargement of the axillary lymph nodes.
There are many indirect signs of breast cancer , but even with the first anxiety symptoms, you should immediately consult a physician to prescribe adequate treatment.
Treatment of breast cancer
An effective treatment is prescribed by a specialist after the examination of the patient. In a number of cases is used to promptly remove the cancer of or the tumor itself, if its size does not exceed 4-cm, or the entire breast.
Chemotherapy can become a more sparing alternative to surgery. Specialists prescribe a course of medications before and after the operation. This approach can reduce the size of the tumor and control the growth of the tumor.
Radiotherapy - radiation is widely used by oncologists to prevent relapse after a course of treatment. Contraindication to radiotherapy is the 4th stage of the disease. If the patient is diagnosed with breast cancer and metastasis in the bone, then radiotherapy is not used.