The most common benign tumors of the larynx are papilloma, fibroma, hemangioma, lymphangioma and myxoma. Also, non-malignant formations include the retention cyst in the throat and dermoid, as well as other air, external and internal tumorous neoplasms. Some of these are diagnosed quite often. And benign tumors of the throat, such as hemangioma, lymphangioma and myxoma, are rare.
Benign throat tumors: symptoms and photos of the papilloma and fibromas of the larynx
Symptoms of benign laryngeal tumors occur much more often malignant. In this case, unlike larynx cancer, they never lead to a restriction of the mobility of the vocal folds. More details on the symptoms of such benign tumors of the throat, as fibromas and papillomas. They account for more than 90% of all tumors that occur.
Fibroma of the larynx consists of fibrous connective tissue, covered with a flat epithelium. Its consistency depends on what predominates: cells or fibrous matter. If there is a predominance of fluid and a scant amount of dense constituents, the tumor is called a polyp, or edematous fibroma.
Look at the photo: the laryngeal fibroids are grayish white and pink in color;if it is red or purple-blue, it speaks of numerous dilated vessels( angiofibroma).The tumor is most often located on a pedicle or on a wide base. Usually it is located on the vocal fold, but it happens in the guttural ventricle and on the anterior fold. Its dimensions vary from 0.2 to 1.2 cm in diameter. The tumor grows slowly. Most often it occurs in men.
The etiology of the papilloma of the larynx is unknown, but there is evidence that the disease is caused by an oncogenic DNA-containing virus that belongs to the Papova group. Unlike fibroma, the papilloma in the throat grows relatively quickly and often recurs( primarily in children).
As seen in the photo, the papilloma of the larynx consists of a connective stroma with a small number of cells and wide vessels, which is covered with multilayered flat epithelium. The epithelium is clearly delimited from the connective stroma by the basal membrane. Isolate soft and dense papillomas, depending on the nature of the stroma.
Notice the photo: papilloma in the throat of children it is soft-fiber, and in the elderly it is coarse-fiber, with fewer cells and vessels, more pronounced cornification of the epithelium. Papillomas are single and multiple. The tumor is warty, has a papillary appearance( resembling a cauliflower), usually it is pale pink, but it can also be dark red. Most often it occurs on the vocal folds, less often - on the vestibular folds, but generally can appear on any part of the mucous membrane of the trachea and larynx.
Most often, papillomas occur in children from one and a half to five years. In adults, a hard, white and often recurrent papilloma sometimes turns into cancer. The first manifestation of such a degeneration is hoarseness, after which aphonia develops, and then there is a difficulty in breathing.
Hemangion, lymphangioma and myxoma of the larynx
Tumors such as hemangioma and lymphangioma of the larynx are rare. Hemangiomas of the larynx are red, less often - dark blue, have lobate appearance. Most often there are cavernous angiomas. The tumor is usually single, localized more often on the vocal and vestibular folds in the scaly region.
Myxoma is very rare, it is a connective tissue tumor with a high content of mucus, a lipoma, a leiomyoma located in the subglottic department, in the pear-shaped sinus, an adenoma with a tendency to relapse and malignant degeneration, as well as chondroma, neurinoma, osteoma, neurofibroma.
Cysts in the throat: retention and dermoid
In addition, there are also so-called tumor-like formations: cysts and air laryngeal tumors.
Cysts are the primary( retentional and congenital) and secondary( due to rebirth of benign tumors).The most common are retention cysts( formed as a result of blockage of the ducts of the mucous glands of the larynx).
Retreatment cysts are usually formed on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis, but are also in the thickness of the vocal and vestibular folds. They are bubbles filled with a transparent viscous liquid. The mucous membrane that covers such cysts is often thinned.
In dermoid cysts the membrane is dense, and the contents are mushy. Congenital cysts are formed from the remains of the thyroid-lingual course. Symptoms occur only when the cysts reach large sizes: there is uneasiness when swallowing and sometimes - difficulty breathing.
Air, external and internal tumors of the larynx
To true air tumors of the larynx - laryngocele - leads to an abnormality of the ventricle of the larynx, as well as the atony of its walls, which is combined with factors leading to increased pressure inside the larynx( straining, cough, etc.).Symptomatic laryngoceles arise due to tumors of the vestibular fold, scars of posttraumatic or postinfectional nature( syphilis, etc.).They interfere with the return of the air that penetrated the guttural ventricle during phonation.
Airborne tumors are divided into internal( inside the larynx), external( on the neck) and combined.
The external tumor has a spherical shape, it is elastic, shifts along with the larynx, is located inward from the sternum-mastoid muscle and never goes beyond the hyoid bone. When coughing or natuzhivanii it increases in size, and when pressed on it decreases. The internal air tumor is covered by the mucous membrane from the top, comes from the laryngeal ventricle, covers the vocal fold and the vocal cavity to some extent, sometimes it pushes the epiglottis and extends into the pear-shaped sine. When you inhale, it sometimes decreases, and when you flash, on the contrary, it increases.
Internal and combined air tumor is the cause of dysphonia, and with large dimensions - difficulty breathing. External air swelling sometimes hinders the turns of the head and makes it difficult to swallow. If there is an infection( laryngiopiocele), which happens rarely, pus can erupt into the trachea.
Treatment of papilloma in the throat and laryngeal fibromas in children and adults
Treatment of fibroma surgical. It is removed endolarynually. If localization is underlayment, laryngophyssure may be required.
Radical treatment of the papilloma of the larynx in children and adults does not exist. Due to its recurrent nature, the most effective is a complex treatment that starts with surgical intervention. Surgical methods of treatment include: tracheostomy, which is carried out as an independent treatment( for example, with severe stenosis in young children, and at an older age to stop relapses) or in combination with other therapeutic measures. Another method of treating papilloma in the larynx is laryngophyssura( primarily with solid papilloma), which is an excision of papillomas, combined with transplantation to exposed areas of the venous wall, skin flaps, and the oral mucosa. For young children, such manipulation is not desirable, since it can cause scarring of stenosis, perichondritis. Endolaryngeal removal of papillomas in combination with the removal of papillomas forceps;microcautery;surgical diathermy( preferably with suction);ultrasound;cryosurgery;intra-papilloma injection or topical application( lubrication, rubbing, infusion) of cytotoxic drug hormones;antibiotics( bleomycin), etc.
Medication methods of therapy include antibiotics;hormones, cytotoxic drugs;immunological means;antiviral agents of DNA - adeninarabinoside;preparations of magnesium, calcium, which correct the deficiency of electrolytes.
Radiation therapy is not currently used, because it can delay the growth of the larynx, perichondritis and cause malignant degeneration of the papillomas.
Also shown fortifying treatment: taking multivitamins, primarily vitamin A, fish oil, as well as biogenic stimulants: injections of aloe, FIBS.
Treatment of other types of laryngeal tumors
Treatment of other types of laryngeal tumors is somewhat different from the treatment of papilloma in the throat and fibromas.
The hemangioma and lymphangioma are removed by electrocautery. Sclerosing therapy( injection of alcohol), as well as X-ray or tele-gamma therapy is indicated.
Treatment of myxoma, lipoma, leiomyoma and other rare benign tumors is surgical.
Cysts remove endolaryngeal, and if it is very large - by external route. It is not necessary to pick it out, it will be enough to bite the outer surface so that it turns into a pit.
Treatment of air tumors - surgical. If the tumor is internal, perform endolaryngeal, and with external and combined - external operation.