Alveolitis is an inflammatory process of the alveolus socket that occurs mainly from exogenous factors. Most often occurs after tooth extraction.
The most frequent surgical intervention in the oral cavity is the extraction of teeth. Despite all the precautions and rules of manipulation, complications are not excluded. One such is the alveolitis.
- 1 main causes of alveolitis
- 1.1 presence within the oral infection
- 1.2 destruction or absence of a blood clot after tooth extraction
- 1.3 bleeding disorder
- 1.4 low general and local immunity
- 1.5 Medical errors
- 2 Symptoms
- 3 Treatment
- 3.1 Drugs for the treatment of alveolitis of the socket of the remote tooth
- 3.2 Physiotherapy
The main causes of the development of the alveolitis
The operation of tooth extraction is up toa very important event that requires the high professionalism of the dentist and the attention of the patient himself. It happens, so that the doctor fulfills all the requirements for surgical intervention, and the patient neglects his recommendations for caring for the wound. As a result, a pathological process develops. But the causes of the disease can be and not dependent on the behavior of the patient and the actions of the doctor.
The alveolitis of the socket of the removed tooth is able to develop in the following cases:
Presence inside the oral infection
Basically it is not treated carious teeth, periodontal diseases especially gingivitis and periodontitis, inflammatory and infectious lesions of the oral mucosa. Often there is a drift of infection with dirty household items or hands. This is often observed in childhood, so parents should be extremely careful at least in the first 3-4 days after the operation.
In addition, it is necessary to monitor personal oral hygiene. Almost everyone carries out poor-quality dental care in the molar area( behind the root teeth).Thus, after removing the wisdom tooth, the microflora, which is constantly in the mouth, easily penetrates into the well.
The destruction or absence of a blood clot after tooth extraction
A blood clot may not form due to vasospasm after an injection of anesthesia. As a result, the hole remains open, and the pathogenic microflora easily penetrates into the wound. Its destruction often occurs through the fault of the patient with an early rinse of the mouth with an antiseptic, eating or picking a hole with a toothpick. In addition, the clot will form for a long time at high blood pressure.
Blood clotting disorder
Such a pathology the patient should know and take into account the doctor. Clotting of blood disrupts the intake of medications such as Varvarin and Aspirin. For this period, they should at least temporarily be abandoned.
Low general and local immunity
With a decrease in the body's resistance, a prolonged regeneration of the wound takes place. As a result, the microflora has time to penetrate into the hole and cause pathology.
This happens rarely, but still takes place in dental practice. Inflammation occurs due to a violation of the sterility of the instrumentation, the entry of infected bone fragments or necrotic masses into the well, and also poor cleaning of the hole from the remains of the granuloma.
Usually the manifestation of pathology begins after 12 hours. But there are also delayed symptoms of the disease, which begin in a day or more. Usually, if during 24 hours painful sensations after tooth extraction do not subside, but even intensify on the contrary, it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor.
The main symptoms of the alveolitis are the following symptoms:
- increased body temperature;
- pain intensification in the area of operation;
- difficulty in eating and opening the mouth;
- an increase in the submandibular lymph nodes at the beginning, and then of the parotid and cervical;
- edema and redness of the well;
- spread of the inflammatory focus to surrounding soft tissues of the oral cavity;
- appearance of an unpleasant sharp smell from the mouth;
- presence of a grayish coating and discharge from the well;
- absence of blood clot;
- bitter taste in the mouth.
The result of treatment largely depends on the timely access to the dentist for help. The therapeutic effect is mainly to purify the well and prescribe antibacterial therapy. Frequent and thorough rinsing of the mouth with antiseptic solutions is also necessary.
The treatment stages are as follows:
- Local anesthesia. Usually this is an injectable injection of anesthetics.
- Curettage of an inflamed hole. Without this manipulation, the local impact will be useless. In addition, it is necessary to remove all pathologically altered tissues, purulent exudate and granulation.
- Abundant irrigation or oral baths from antiseptics and antibiotics.
- Purpose of physiotherapeutic procedures.
- Medical recommendations on the house.
Drugs for the treatment of alveolitis of the socket of the remote tooth
In the absence of timely and competent treatment, complications may develop. It is not uncommon for the long course of the alveolitis to develop osteomyelitis of the socket. This defeat is already the bones of the alveoli accompanied by its necrotic decay.
Therefore, various groups of drugs are used for the therapeutic effect:
Macrolide antibiotics, namely Azitral, Summed, Jozamecin, have a good effect. They actively affect the pathogenic microflora, which is characteristic of the alveolitis. It is not uncommon for dentists to recommend fluoroquinolones such as Sparfloxacin and Levofloxacin. Antibiotics are administered either orally in the form of tablets and capsules, as well as intramuscularly.
These preparations are given special attention. They act directly on the focus of inflammation when rinsing the mouth. The procedures are mostly prescribed for the house. Recommended for rinsing, oral baths and applications Chlorgeksedin, Stomatidin, Iodinol. Use drugs at least 3 times a day and especially after a meal, as during this period the microflora begins to develop especially actively.
It is recommended to use decoctions of medicinal herbs as antiseptic drugs. High effectiveness of therapeutic effects is established in sage, chamomile, calendula.
Unpleasant sensations last long, even with successful removal of the tooth. If treatment for the alveolitis has been carried out, the pain, as a rule, persists even longer and is more intense. Therefore, to take them off take Ketanov, Nurofen or Tempalgin.
Special efficiency is established from the action of a helium-neon laser. Practically through 3 procedures there is a significant decrease in inflammation. With severe pain, a small course of fluxing( a method based on the use of current) is carried out. For the best separation of exudate, microwave therapy is prescribed, and for regeneration of UFO.
If you suspect an alveolitis, you can start treatment at home. Basically it consists of first aid. It is necessary to thoroughly rinse the oral cavity with one of the antiseptics, take potent analgesics. The tooth socket can be covered with streptocid powder or put on it a gauze napkin, richly impregnated with Stomatidin solution.
With proper treatment, the well begins to regenerate after 10 days. Complete disappearance of the inflammation is observed after 14 days.