Thyroid adenoma or toxic adenoma is a disease that occurs as a result of hyperfunction of the thyroid gland node, if there are several hyperfunctioning nodes, this is a multinodal toxic goiter.
Expert opinion: Not as a result of hyperfunction of the thyroid nodule, but as a result of uncontrolled growth of the cells of the thyroid gland itself. With hyperfunction of cells of the thyroid gland node, the disease will still be called - nodal toxic goiter.
Thyroid adenoma refers to benign tumors and has a round or oval shape. Gland cells have a different degree of perception to factors that increase their growth( the amount of iodine) and therefore the most sensitive cells start to not be controlled to multiply, and form a knot. These cells have receptors that react to the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone, and are able to produce it in a larger amount. They become autonomously functioning cells. The danger of this disease is that a benign tumor can be transformed into a malignant and increased secretion of the hormone inhibits the work of the pituitary gland and the entire thyroid gland as a whole.
Most often, adenoma of the thyroid gland develops in women after 40 years. The initial manifestations of the disease are as follows: a loss of body weight occurs and the diet and lifestyle do not change;irritability appears;a person does not tolerate heat and heat;heartbeat, which persists at rest and in sleep;there is rapid fatigue of the body with minor physical exertion.
With further course of the disease, there are problems from the gastrointestinal tract, blood pressure rises and in some cases there is a constantly increased body temperature. In people aged only symptoms at the onset of the disease, there may be heart palpitations, drowsiness and fatigue and shortness of breath. Gradually, the number of symptoms will increase, and changes in the heart, side and blood vessels will progress, causing arrhythmia and myocardial dystrophy. All this can lead to heart failure.
Clinically, the adenoma is detected as a node that has clear contours and the doctor can detect it when palpation. After the node is found, the endocrinologist assigns a series of studies to confirm the diagnosis: ultrasound diagnosis of the gland, cytological analysis and blood test for thyroid hormones and scintigraphy. For a cytological analysis, take a puncture. Most often, such an aspiration biopsy is carried out under the supervision of ultrasound, it makes it possible in 80% of cases to distinguish adenoma from cancer.
Adenoma can be combined with goitre or thyroid cancer. After the diagnosis is established the endocrinologist selects treatment considering the size of the adenoma, the patient's age and sex. If the size of the adenoma is small, then the doctor prescribes a comprehensive medication, and if the adenoma is 2 cm or more, and there is a probability of degeneration of the adenoma into a malignant tumor - a surgical operation.
Treatment of thyroid adenoma
Drug treatment is the use of drugs that inhibit the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone, that is, they perform suppressive therapy. With this therapy, a person needs to use 2 to 5.2 μg / kg of thyroxine body weight per day, an average of about 150-200 μg. This treatment is very serious and should proceed strictly according to the recommendations of the doctor and under his supervision. Suppressive therapy has its consequences - it is the appearance of osteoporosis in women and children and cardiovascular disorders. This therapy has a positive effect of treatment in 80% of the adenoma, which occurs with an insufficient amount of iodine and 15% with toxic adenoma.
During treatment of thyroid adenoma, it is recommended to use phytotherapy in the same way. Use plants that are able to suppress the production of hormones or can cause cell death. Such plants include: European zyuznik, pink periwinkle( cataractus), autumn autumn cocks, Pacific yew, black-headed common. To the medicines that are prescribed, in the treatment of thyroid adenoma are: levothyroxine, l-thyroxine, microroyodite, carbimazole, propitsil and others. Patients aged can offer treatment of adenoma with radioactive iodine.
There is still a non-operational method, which is used with a small number and small sizes of nodes. Directly into the node with the help of a needle, ethanol with a volume of 1 to 8 ml is injected. This procedure is carried out several times, the result is the destruction of the adenomatous node and the cessation of hormone production.
Also, people who have been diagnosed with adenoma need mental balance, healthy sleep and protection from active sunlight, a protein diet and a properly selected vitamin complex.
If drug treatment is ineffective, the size of the site is large or the patient is a woman who plans in the future children, then an operation is performed to remove a benign tumor, i.e., adenoma. Most often, before the operation, the patient is prescribed individually selected medication, which must be strictly observed. The operation itself should be performed under endotracheal combined anesthesia, and not under general. The incision during surgery is recommended to be done on the lower part of the neck.
In the presence of a single adenoma in one of the lobes of the gland, only the portion that is affected or resection of the thyroid gland is only removed within the healthy tissue. The entire fraction is removed, in the event that there is a danger of a malignant tumor. With large, overgrown nodes that are found, throughout the gland, two lobes are removed, that is, a complete removal of the thyroid gland. The operation is completed by the application of one or more cosmetic sutures. If the operation has passed, without complications, the person is discharged for 2-3 days, and with a severe form for 5-6 days. The prognosis for thyroid surgery is favorable.
After the operation, it is recommended to abandon bad habits, consume iodine in sufficient quantity and for a long time is not in the sun.