Causes, Symptoms and Treatment of Thyroid Adenoma

Endocrine system is a kind of conductor of all metabolic processes occurring in the human body. Any pathology of this system can lead to a significant deterioration in overall well-being. It is not an exception of the adenoma of the thyroid gland, which in its essence is a neoplasm of benign nature. The basis of the tumor is a glandular tissue with no altered morphological structure. It has no tendency to rapid growth and spread to surrounding tissues. Due to its presence, it can disrupt the functioning of the thyroid gland.

Causes of thyroid adenoma

Certainly the factors of negative influence that lead to the growth of glandular tissue, doctors are not currently known.

There are many theories according to which the causes of thyroid adenoma can be expressed in the following:

  • an unfavorable ecological environment for living( suffer more often residents of megacities with a polluted atmosphere);
  • deficiency of iodine in water and food( provokes hypertrophy of the glandular tissue in order to compensate for thyroid hormones);
  • frequent catarrhal diseases that are caused by viruses and bacteria and can lead to autoimmune pathological processes;
  • trauma to the neck in the thyroid gland( especially dangerous to the front wall of the throat;
  • disturbance of metabolic processes and hormonal background during pregnancy, after childbirth, at the onset of menopause;
  • use of certain medicines( antibiotics, immunostimulants, bismuth preparations).The age at which the risk of formation of a glandular tumor becomes the maximum occurs after the age of 40. The follicular form is formed more often under the influence ofviral and bacterial flora. For the nodular diffuse form, the deficit of iodine in the diet is of decisive importance. The toxic form of the neoplasm is the most dangerous and can be provoked by total disturbances in the human body

    Symptoms and Treatment of Thyroid Adenoma

    The main symptoms of thyroid adenoma thatshould be regarded as a signal to visit the endocrinologist:

    • a constant low mood and lack of interest in life;
    • increased fatigue and reduced working capacity;
    • rapid loss of body weight for 4 to 6 weeks to 8 kg without diets and increasing the number of physical exertion;
    • disruption of the central nervous system manifests itself in the form of mood lability, changes in blood pressure, hot flushes and a feeling of tremendous chill;
    • increased sensitivity to changes in ambient air temperature: a visit to the steam room can trigger an attack of rapid heart rate and headache;
    • tachyarrhythmia, which does not respond to exposure to conventional antiarrhythmic drugs( persists even with the patient's complete physical and emotional rest);
    • headaches of unknown genesis;
    • problems with insomnia and increased drowsiness during the day;
    • total hyperhidrosis, in which increased sweating can be observed even in the area of ​​the feet and palms( although the greatest amount of sweat is secreted traditionally from under the mice).

    Treatment of thyroid adenoma is possible only surgically by surgical procedure. To do this, partial resection of the thyroid gland is carried out with subsequent measures to prevent relapses. Methods of treatment depend on the form of pathology and are discussed further in the article.

    Prognosis for life with adenoma of the right and left lobe of the thyroid gland

    The prognosis of life for thyroid adenoma does not depend on the location of the tumor. Adenoma of the left lobe of the thyroid gland develops more often in women older than 55 years. Adenoma of the right lobe of the thyroid gland can occur against a background of hyperthyroidism and a violation of the hormonal balance during the entry into the climacteric period.

    To support a quality standard of living, correct and timely diagnosis of pathology is important. The sooner a tumor is discovered, the higher the chances of maintaining health until old age.

    Primary diagnosis is performed with a palpation examination of the gland. Nodules or a single neoplasm are identified. Then, ultrasound examination and, if necessary, biopsy of tissues for histological analysis should be prescribed to exclude the oncological process.

    To make a life prediction allows analysis on the level of thyroid hormones, which have a negative effect on the human body, if they are produced in large quantities. If the hormonal background is normal, then it is possible to predict with a high degree of probability a prolonged state of remission and the absence of negative symptoms.

    Toxic adenoma of the thyroid: symptoms and treatment

    Toxic adenoma of the thyroid is the most unfavorable form of pathology. Known in medicine under the name of Plummer's disease, which is characterized by a diffuse form of nodules. It is easily determined by palpating the gland tissues. Recently, this pathology has become widespread due to the promotion of continuous intake of drugs based on potassium iodide. Ignorant people in medicine blindly believe the advertising of "Iodomarin" and other similar drugs and begin their daily long reception without preliminary laboratory tests of blood. With an excessive amount of iodine in the body and the presence of concomitant risk factors, rapid tumor development begins.

    Symptoms of toxic thyroid adenoma are pronounced, patients experience constant mood swings, headaches and increased heart rate. There is a rapid weight loss without diet and exercise.

    Treatment of toxic thyroid adenoma is carried out by surgical removal or by insertion of ethanol in the cavity. As a rule, the operation is appointed in an emergency order when a neoplasm whose diameter exceeds 20 mm is detected. With diffuse forms of this type of tumor, total resection of the thyroid gland tissue is possible. In this case, patients are forced for the rest of their lives to take hormonal drugs with a substitute.

    Follicular thyroid adenoma and its treatment

    Follicular thyroid adenoma is characterized by a fairly young age of patients in whom it is found. A characteristic feature of the pathology is that the neoplasm develops from the follicular cells of the glandular tissue. Has a capsular structure, inside of which a cavity filled with a serous secret can be formed. It is often transformed into a trabecular and colloidal form of the tumor. But in typical cases, simple and fetal neoplasms are diagnosed that do not produce thyroid hormones.

    Treatment of follicular thyroid adenoma in the case of reliable establishment of its good quality, is reduced to regular follow-up at the endocrinologist's doctor. But this requires at least 2 times a year to carry out a biopsy of tumor tissues in order to quickly and timely identify cases of transformation into oncology.

    The complexity of the diagnosis lies in the unique projection of a similar form of the tumor process during the ultrasound and radiographic examination. The level of hormones remains at the physiological level or may decrease with a large tumor size. Clinically, there are no special symptoms. Only in a number of cases, patients complain of frequent perspiration in the throat, a feeling of dryness in the mouth. About half have a sensation of a lump in the throat, which can interfere with swallowing food and liquid.

    Atypical follicular thyroid adenoma

    Atypical thyroid adenoma, as a rule, is characterized by a rapidly progressive deterioration of the patient's condition. Atypical follicular thyroid adenoma can be manifested in two varieties. It is a tumor that is formed from Gurtle cells and a papillary neoplasm.

    The most dangerous for human health and life is a tumor from Gurtle cells, which is most often a combined pathology with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. For a long time, the latent flow masquerades as the symptoms of the underlying disease( Hashimoto's thyroiditis), so it is diagnosed already at a late stage, when the size of the lesion reaches 3 and more in diameter. The shape is irregular, the surface is not smooth, with protruding tubercles filled with a serous and hemorrhagic component.

    Papillary forms have a high degree of risk of transformation into cancer processes. Therefore, timely removal of such neoplasms is recommended in order to prevent oncological tumors of the thyroid gland.

    There is another type of atypical adenoma of the thyroid gland, in which the accumulation of various substances, including globulins and glycogenes, can take place inside the cavity of the neoplasm. These substances can have a pathological effect on the condition of not only the gland tissues, but also the general vitality of a person.

    When diagnosing and determining the method of treatment of any form and course of thyroid adenoma, one should always consider the high risk of malignancy of such forms of tumors. In addition to the risk of cancer, there is a serious functional burden on internal organs and systems. Recently, leading researchers have provided convincing data that indicate that the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease increases significantly in people who have pathologies in the thyroid gland.

    To prevent this pathology, it is necessary to undergo regular examination at the endocrinologist, especially at the age of over 40 years. It is not recommended to take preparations containing iodine on your own, since the excess of this microelement in the human body is not less harmful than its lack. The development of thyroiditis always represents a risk of the onset of a tumor process. Protect your throat from injuries, bruises, hypothermia and exposure to direct sunlight.