Protein is considered the main element, due to which our internal process of "building" in the body takes place. The weight that the protein in our body amounts to is about 15-20 percent. On average, about 8 percent of the ten make up the remains of plasma protein. Due to the fact that proteins play a very significant role in our body, the determination of its level is extremely important.
Protein maintains blood fluidity and its viscosity and determines the volume of blood needed in the vascular bed. Due to proteins, uniform elements are kept in a suspended state, and also transportation of the most important exogenous and endogenous substances is carried out. It can be hormones and mineral components, pigments and lipids. Due to proteins, the pH level in the blood is regulated. Protein also takes an active part in immune reactions.
Most of the protein is synthesized directly in the liver. Hepatocytes, which are liver cells, synthesize albumin and fibrinogen, alpha and beta globulins, as well as components of the coagulation system. Most of the beta-globulin is synthesized directly in the lymphocyte cells.
How much protein is contained in the blood plasma( serum) can be characterized by the terms normoproteinemia, hyperproteinemia and hypoproteinemia. Based on how many proteins are in the serum, we can conclude on the state of human health.
If the level of protein in the blood has changed, then it is necessary to find out the reasons for the appearance of such a change. There were a number of reasons for this. Specific these changes are not, however, they reflect pathological processes that can be expressed by necrosis or inflammation, neoplasms, as well as the dynamics of the disease and its severity. With this help you can determine the effectiveness of the treatment. Therefore, the determination of the level of the total protein or individual fractions, with a correct interpretation, is important, both clinical and diagnostic.
The norm of total protein in serum is from 6.5 to 8.5 g%, where the norm of albumins is from 4 to 5 g%, and globulins - from two to three g%.The rate of fibrinogen can be from 0.2 to 0.4 g%.
For children, the figures are different. So, for children up to a year is considered to be 44-73 g / l, with an age from one year to two, the norm will be the indices in 56-75 g / l. If the child is from 2 to 14 years old, his protein norm in the body will be 60-80 g / l, while for children over 14 years old the normal value will be 66 to 88 g / l.
Hypoproteinemia of a physiological character is a process that is often observed in children or, in women during pregnancy, often in the third trimester, during lactation or in people who observe a long-term bed rest.
A possible change in the percentage of protein can be observed with a sharp increase or, decrease in the volume of blood that circulates throughout the body. With hydremia( load with water, or, as the disease is also called "water poisoning,") hypoproteinemia can occur, while hyperproteinemia may develop with dehydration / dehydration.
Absolute hypoproteinemia can occur in the following cases:
- Deficiency in the intake of proteins in the body due to frequent malnutrition and starvation, narrowing of the esophagus or abnormal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Inflammatory diseases that occur in the intestines and lead to a deterioration in the digestion and absorption of proteins.
- When the activity and functioning of the liver is disturbed, which can cause cirrhosis and hepatitis, toxic lesions and carcinomas, and, worse, metastasis of tumors in the liver.
- Acute and chronic bleeding and extensive burns, frequent kidney disease, nephrotic syndrome
- Reinforced catabolism or, in other words, protein breakdown due to prolonged hyperthermia or, thermal burns and thyrotoxicosis
- Physical activity and oncological diseases
- Protein redistribution, viz., their exit from the vessels and the creation of transudates and exudates.
The opposite phenomenon is absolute hyperproteinemia, it can be observed less frequently, and it manifests itself usually under the following conditions:
- Infectious and chronic, inflammatory processes in the body
- Autoimmune pathologies in the form of lupus erythematosus and rheumatism
- Oncological diseases with hyperproduction of a number of pathological proteins, namely, paraproteinemia.
What indications contribute to the purpose of the assay?
- Chronic diseases, including infectious diseases
- Systemic diseases, collagenosis
- Diseases of the liver and kidneys
- Nutritional disorders
- Burn reactions