Among benign neoplasms, it is worthwhile to isolate into a group of tumors that are formed from fibrous tissue. They can be formed under the influence of pathological factors, such as trauma, cuts, bruises and prolonged friction. In the place of traumatic tissue injury, the scarring process begins, in which fibrin fibers participate. If the natural healing process is broken, scars and scars can form. In their place most often there is a fibroma of the skin.
Skin fibroma in children and adults consists of normal cells of connective tissue and fibrin fibers. The cellular structure is completely ripened, and differs by standard morphological properties. This allows you to quickly differentiate fibroma under the skin from malignant neoplasms by biopsy with subsequent histological analysis of the cells obtained.
A typical location of localization - under a deep layer of epidermis, in the structural parts of the membrane, consisting of connective tissue. The frequency of occurrence does not exceed 1 case per 10 000 population. The risk to life is minimal. This type of tumors rarely mutates into malignant tumors. The method of treatment is removal under local anesthesia.
The causes of fibroid skin
Currently, the true causes of fibroid skin scientists are not known. As mentioned above, various traumas can become a risk factor, after which the process of natural scarring is disrupted. Predisposing factors include genetic changes. When studying medical statistics, there are clear patterns that indicate a family continuity of the propensity to form such pathological changes. Fibroma of the skin in children is more common in those families where one of the parents already suffers from such a disease or passed in the recent past through an operation to remove this type of tumor.
The morphological cause of skin fibrosis is a violation of the differentiation of fibrin and collagen cell division in the process of scarring of damaged tissues. After complete healing, this process does not stop and there is an excess tissue that is delimited from other parts of the epidermis and the layer of connective tissue.
How does the fibroma manifest under the skin?
Now it's time to figure out how the fibroma under the skin manifests, how you can determine the presence of this disease in yourself and children. Usually the formation is formed for a long time, at the initial stages it does not reveal itself in any way. Approximately 3-4 months after the injury, a dense tumor can begin to be determined in this place, which, as a rule, is immobile and painless. It can be a small knot or an extensive neoplasm with clear boundaries within 5-8 cm in diameter. With prolonged existence, fibroma causes an increase in the pigmentation of the skin immediately above the site of its localization. Soft forms can cause a systematic appearance of subcutaneous hematomas, which look like bruises. This is due to the fact that with repeated injuries in the cavity of the fibroid can penetrate blood from small blood vessels. During the decay of erythrocytes, dyeing of skin surfaces occurs, which gradually changes its color from bright brown to cyanotic shade.
The general condition of the patient does not suffer. However, a large tumor can make it difficult to perform certain movements and is a serious problem in the form of a cosmetic defect.
Firm skin fibroma
Tumors with a tight elastic structure and a relatively stable consistency are referred to as solid types. They are diagnosed most often and are called dermatofibroma. Distinctive feature - can develop on a kind of "leg", which consists of a connective tissue harness. The removal of such tumors is reduced to cutting off their "legs."Most often, the firm fibroma of the skin has a clear circular shape and is not soldered to surrounding tissues. Can be placed on the hands, feet, back or in the face area.
It is diagnosed with the help of palpation: a neoplasm with distinct borders, dome type, painless upon pressing is detected. It does not shift relative to its base even if it has a "leg".A typical distinctive feature is the formation of a defect in the skin under pressure. At the same time, a stable depressed depression is formed, which spreads out within 3-5 minutes. To obtain this effect, it is enough to squeeze the neoplasm between two fingers laterally.
Single hard fibroids of the skin occur with the same frequency, both in children and in adults. There is no gender difference in the incidence of neoplasm. In isolated cases, multiple isolated tumors occur in different parts of the body.
Soft skin fibroids
Soft skin fibroids are relatively rare and characterized by small sizes. The floor is essentially an isolated pouch made of connective dense tissue. Inside, there may be intercellular fluid with an admixture of hemorrhagic effusion. Typical dimensions do not exceed 15 mm in diameter. It is observed in women who entered the menopause and men with endocrine type of obesity. Typical localization of soft skin fibers is the armpits, mammary glands and the area that surrounds them, inguinal zones and inner thigh, neck, upper abdomen and upper eyelid. In other places it is rare and it is not typical cases of development.
The main risk factor is age over 40 years and the presence of excess body weight with a pronounced hormonal effect.
Fibroma on the foot under the skin
Fibroma on the foot under the skin often develops as a dermatofibroma with a typical narrow base. This tumor is a significant problem, as it constantly traumatizes it with clothes and shoes.
Often formed in the region of the inner surface of the thigh and in the region of the foot( on the inside).The cause may be numerous injuries in the form of a blow and cuts. It requires immediate removal, as it is often complicated by necrosis, bleeding and pain syndrome.
Treatment and removal of skin fibroma
Currently only surgical treatment of fibroid of the skin is available. Under local anesthesia, removal of fibroids of the skin is performed and a sterile bandage is applied. In the subsequent it is required to carry out antiseptic processing and do dressings.
Usually, for small sizes and a specific location of the tumor( when it is not injured), wait-and-see observation tactics are chosen. The patient is under constant medical check-up. With the resumption of growth of the neoplasm or in the presence of secretions from it, a surgical operation is prescribed.
At present, fibroid skin treatment is possible without hospitalization in a clinic. For removal, excision with a scalpel, exposure to liquid nitrogen( cryodestruction), laser coagulation or exposure to electric current can be used. Sometimes the method of exposure to radio waves is used in the presence of contraindications for open surgical intervention.
The rehabilitation period is from 7 to 10 days. After healing of the wound surface, there are usually no traces. Repeated recurrence of skin fibrosis is a rare phenomenon. Most often, the neoplasm is identified in adjacent areas of the skin. It is necessary to change the way of life and nutrition to prevent relapses. It is recommended to reduce body weight and prevent traumatic lesions of the skin.