The problem of poor blood coagulation is called a blood coagulation disorder. It is caused by the fact that there is no normal occlusion of blood vessels when they are damaged.
When all is well, when bleeding at the wound site, the blood begins to thicken, which prevents a large loss of it. But sometimes this complex mechanism does not work, and this leads to a strong or prolonged bleeding.
When the blood does not fold well, this does not always lead to an external loss of it. It can also manifest as hemorrhages under the skin or in the brain.
- 1 Causes of poor blood clotting
- 1.1 Common causes of problems with blood clotting:
- 1.2 Symptoms of poor blood coagulation
- 2 What to do if the blood does not tighten
- 2.1 Diagnosis
- 2.2 Options for treating poor blood clotting
- 2.3 Treatment of consequencescaused by blood loss
- 2.4 Complications of clotting disorder
Causes of poor blood clotting
Blood poorly folds when presentcoziness problems with factors of blood coagulation - substances in it that provide this process. Most of these substances are different proteins. Therefore, many causes are associated with the defects of the protein in the plasma( the liquid component of the blood).These proteins are directly responsible for how the blood coagulates, responsible for blockage of damaged vessels. In some diseases, they may be completely absent, or contained in too low a quantity. Most of these diseases are hereditary( transmitted from parents to the child through genes).
However, poor blood clotting can be caused not only by genetic abnormalities. Here is a list of all the main reasons:
- Hereditary disorders. These include, first and foremost, hemophilia and Willebrand disease. Hemophilia is a disease accompanied by poor blood coagulation. Von Willebrand's disease is a violation in which the same factor( von Willebrand's background) is not enough or completely absent, which leads to clotting disorders;
- Vitamin K deficiency;
- Carcinoma of the liver itself or the destruction of its cells by cancer from other organs;
- Other liver damage and diseases, most commonly infectious( hepatitis) and scarring( cirrhosis);
- Prolonged use of powerful antibiotics or anticoagulant drugs( drugs that are aimed at fighting the formation of blood clots);
- Use of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors, which in some cases are needed to slow down and prevent the growth and development of new blood vessels in the body;
- Thrombocytopenia is a condition in which the level of platelets falls below the established norm;
- Anemia is a condition where the level of hemoglobin or red blood cells falls below the established rate;
- Some other disorders not caused by oncological diseases.
The most common causes of problems with blood coagulability:
Based on the above, the reasons for poor blood clotting can be divided into inherited( transmitted genetics) and acquired. Some of them cause bleeding spontaneously, while others cause blood loss after vascular injury-trauma.
- The most common hereditary blood clotting disorders are:
of hemophilia A and B, caused by a deficiency or lack of certain proteins performing the function of blood coagulation that are part of a group of factors. This disorder causes severe or unusual bleeding.
- deficiencies in II, V, VII, X, XII coagulation factors - cause clotting problems or abnormal bleeding.
- von Willebrand disease is the most common hereditary bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor( one of the plasma proteins) that helps platelets stick together and adhere to the wall of the blood vessel.
Certain diseases and medical conditions can also cause a deficiency of one or more clotting factors.
The most common causes of acquired blood clotting disorders are end-stage liver disease or vitamin K deficiency. According to the American Association of Clinical Chemistry( AACC), this is because most of the clotting factors are formed in the liver and some clotting factors are dependent on vitamin K.
Learn how to maintain your liver healthy.
Symptoms of poor blood clotting
The main symptom of a bleeding disorder is bleeding, which lasts for a long time or too much. Bleeding, as a rule, is heavier than usual, and without obvious reasons for this.
Other symptoms include:
- unexplained bruising;
- profuse menstrual bleeding;
- frequent nasal bleeding;
- too long a stop of a bleeding from insignificant wounds.
What to do if blood does not tighten
If you have the symptoms listed above, you should definitely consult a doctor and get a checkup. At the time of the bleeding, the first pre-medical care should be given according to general recommendations, based on the place and type of injury. If necessary, call an ambulance.
For the diagnosis of blood clotting, the physician first examines the medical history of the patient. To do this, he will ask questions about the presence of health problems and medications. It is necessary to answer about such a list of questions:
- What are the attendant symptoms?
- How often do bleeding occur?
- How long does the bleeding last?
- What did you do before the bleeding started( for example, something hurt, took medication)?
Basic Assays for Test Coagulation Blood :
- Complete blood test to verify blood loss when taking the analysis, as well as the number of red and white blood cells.
- Platelet aggregation assay, which shows how much the platelets are able to attach to each other.
- Measure bleeding time to see how quickly blood vessels clog after a finger puncture.
Treatment options for poor blood clotting
Treatment for bleeding disorders is based on the causes it causes. If possible, diseases are immediately treated that caused the disorder, such as cancer or liver disease. Additional treatments include:
- Taking vitamin K as an injection;
- Drugs aimed at improving the function of coagulation;
- Transfusion of frozen donor blood plasma or donor platelets;
- Other drugs, including hydroxyurea( Droxia, Hydrea), and oprevequine( Neumega) for the treatment of platelet-related disorders.
Treatment of consequences caused by loss of blood
In the presence of significant blood loss, the doctor can prescribe medications containing iron to replenish its quantity in the body. A low level of iron can lead to iron deficiency anemia, which is accompanied by a feeling of weakness, shortness of breath and dizziness. One of the most common and available drugs in this case is "Hematogen".In addition to treatment with iron-containing drugs, blood transfusion may be required.
Transfusion of blood
During this procedure, as is known to most, blood loss is compensated by donor blood. Donor blood must match the type of blood to prevent complications. This procedure is carried out only in the hospital.
Complications of blood clotting disorder
The best results in treatment will be achieved if treatment is started as early as possible. Complications can occur if you start it too late or after a heavy bleeding.
General complications of bleeding disorders:
- bleeding into the brain;
- bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract;
- bleeding and joint pain.