Salmonella infection is an infection that is transmitted with certain products affected by Salmonella. It is more common in children and adolescents. It begins violently with an increase in body temperature. An emergency medical intervention is required to prevent toxic shock and electrolyte and water balance disorders. We offer a material that tells about salmonellosis in humans.
It is believed that the most useful and safe food can be obtained only in the village. Allegedly in raw milk from his cow and in eggs from domestic chickens there can be no contagion. But in fact, there is a danger - salmonella.
Salmonella infection is an infection that is caused by salmonella, a rod-shaped bacterium. In total there are more than 2000 species. These microbes affect not only people, but also animals( large and medium cattle, various rodents), leading to their death. Recently, salmonellae are becoming more frequent birds, mostly waterfowl.
Infection with salmonellosis
In our organism, bacteria get into the use of poorly thermally processed meat, milk, sour cream, eggs from infected birds. Infection with salmonellosis can occur if the rules of personal hygiene are violated.
How is transmitted salmonellosis
There is only one way of how salmonella is transmitted. It is penetration into the human digestive tract. It is theoretically easiest to get infected from duck eggs. According to veterinarians, every second duck is infected with salmonella in our country.
But most often, patients pick up salmonella from chickens. Among these birds, the incidence is not as high as among ducks, but we eat chicken eggs and meat much more often.
Salmonella in eggs
Is there salmonella in eggs of chicken, quail and ducks? Yes, and fried eggs too! In general, if the protein with the yolk is liquid, the bacterium in them can survive.
According to statistics, most patients are infected with salmonella especially when using undercooked or undercooked eggs. Of course, the easiest way to get sick is if you drink them raw. But, fortunately, now there are fewer such cases.
Is it better to exclude fried eggs from the diet? Eggs are a valuable food, but they need to be cooked very carefully: so that they boil in water for at least 10 minutes. Only then do all the Salmonella perish.
Are products from domestic chickens safe? It is worth breaking out diseases at one end of the coop, as almost the whole farm gets sick. In rural communities, chickens live more isolated, but there is no guarantee that they will not catch salmonella.
Does the infection spread through the water? Much rarer, since moisture for Salmonella is not a very favorable environment. To get infected, a person must drink raw water, which pathogens have recently been found and in large quantities. In addition, it is possible to catch salmonellosis if hygiene is not observed, and unwashed vegetables and fruits are used.
Can salmonella come from person to person? You can not get airborne. The patient can infect others if he cooks food or uses general hygiene items, without washing his hands after the toilet. In this case, a person may not even suspect that it is dangerous. Since infectious patients may be infectious or patients with a latent bacterial carrier.
At what time of year is the disease the greatest threat? This ailment can be picked up all year round, for example, regularly eating eggs and meat. However, in the spring-summer period, salmonella infection is more frequent than usual. At this time people start to go to villages, to cottages, to look after gardens and orchards, to drink raw milk and to buy food from their hands. On the streets there are trays with poorly roasted chicken grill. In addition, in the summer heat germs multiply much faster. Who often suffers from salmonella? This depends on the defenses of the body and the number of bacteria that enter it. Sometimes it happens that the whole family ate the same dish, but some got infected, while others did not. If the patient has weak immunity, then he is most likely to become ill.
But if a person has good health he can tolerate salmonellosis in mild form. For example, he decides that he has poisoned himself with something that is not fresh( this symptom is typical for many diseases), one day at home will recover and he will recover. However, in this case, he can become a carrier of infection.
Symptoms of Salmonella
Salmonella enter the small intestine and multiply there. Bacteria secrete toxins that poison the human body. There are signs of salmonellosis
Symptoms of salmonellosis
The disease begins acutely 12-24 hours after infection. The patient's fever rises( sometimes up to 40 ° C), intoxication develops, pains in the abdomen, head, nausea, vomiting, weakness, loss of appetite, skin pale. The chair becomes frequent, liquid, fetid, foamy, often green. The most important symptoms of salmonellosis are severe dehydration.
What happens if the patient does not see a doctor? Salmonella is dangerous for severe dehydration and intoxication. In this case, the patient develops a sharp weakness, pressure and body temperature decrease, the pulse becomes faster, dyspnea appears, the patient can not move.
High temperature means that immunity fights infection, but low signals that the body of the patient "gave up" and the person is between life and death. That's why even at the very beginning of the disease you need to immediately consult a doctor.
What complications can remain after the disease? With timely treatment and the right diet, complications will not develop. But if the patient does not follow the doctor's recommendations, gastritis and gastroduodenitis may remain "in memory" of salmonellosis.
Consequences and complications of salmonellosis
Negative effects of salmonellosis may appear. If salmonella is not treated for a long time, it can go into a very severe generalized form. With it, the bacteria go beyond the intestine, get into the blood, are carried throughout the body and settle simultaneously in various organs( lungs, stomach).
Complications of salmonellosis develop, with an increase in the liver and spleen, and on the seventh day on the abdomen and on the sides there is a rose-olympic rash( non-protruding, non-judicious, small, with clear boundaries).If doctors do not interfere at this stage, the disease will pass to the generalized septic form, in which salmonella form purulent foci in the body. First of all, bacteria affect the liver, lungs, heart and kidneys. This is fraught with very deplorable consequences, up to a lethal outcome.
Prevention of salmonellosis
Specific prophylaxis of salmonellosis by vaccination is not possible. There are no such vaccines. After the disease, the immunity is not only not formed, but quite the opposite - the patient becomes more vulnerable to various intestinal infections. And to catch salmonellosis a second time for him becomes even easier.
How to protect yourself from this disease? Carefully thermally treat food, store food correctly, wash your hands regularly, buy meat only in large stores, do not take chicken from private individuals on the street.
Symptoms of salmonellosis in children
In children, the incubation period of salmonellosis is approximately 3-4 days. How clearly the symptoms and signs of the disease in a young patient will be expressed depends on his age. The most severe salmonellosis occurs in infants and toddlers up to 1 year. In infants, the symptoms of salmonellosis may appear after several hours.
In the early days of the disease, salmonella infection in children develops severe intoxication. It is manifested by weakness, loss of appetite, fever( up to 39 ° C).On the 3rd-4th day, diarrhea appears in the patients. Desires in the toilet become very frequent, sometimes even more than 10 times a day. A chair in children with salmonellosis watery, with a greenish tinge. On the 7th day of the disease, streaks of blood appear in the stool. These are typical symptoms of salmonellosis in children.
If young children do not receive professional medical help in time for salmonellosis in time, this can lead to death. When the first symptoms appear, it is urgent to take the baby to the hospital.
Before the arrival of doctors it is important to make sure that the child drank a lot. It is desirable that they are special salt solutions. If they are not, the baby can be given tea, fruit juice. In addition to this young patient with suspicion of salmonellosis should be isolated from other children. Remember that salmonellosis in children is dangerous.
Treatment of salmonellosis
Self-treatment for salmonellosis is unacceptable. The first signs of an intestinal infection are an occasion to seek medical help. How is salmonella treatment treated? What can and can not be done after recovery? What diet is prescribed.
Diagnosis of salmonellosis
Diagnosis of salmonellosis begins with the fact that the patient takes rinsing water for analysis on the flora. Also examine the urine and make a double bacterial culture of the stool.
Doctors are sure to interview a patient( this is called an anamnesis): what I ate and drank the day before, where I was, whether I had had something similar before, the approximate menu in the next few days of relatives, how they feel.
Still spend palpation of the abdomen: with salmonellosis there are pains in the upper half of the abdomen. After this, the patient donates blood for the determination of antibodies to Salmonella. If the generalized form of the disease is suspected in the blood, the bacteria themselves are searching.
How to treat salmonellosis
The scheme of how to treat salmonellosis is chosen by the doctor depending on the patient's condition. With a mild illness, the patient can stay at home. It is prescribed for the gastrointestinal tract diet, bed rest. To eliminate intoxication and dehydration, absorbents and saline solutions( enterodes, regidron, hydrovit) are prescribed.
In case of a moderate and especially severe illness, it is necessary to be treated at the hospital. There the patient is constantly under the supervision of medical staff, which prevents the possibility of complicating the disease. In addition, there is more intensive treatment and examination. The patient is washed with a stomach, intravenous solutions are prescribed against dehydration( chlolol, acesol).A complex treatment is carried out, including antibiotic therapy( currently fluoroquinolone series), detoxification, spasmolytic, symptomatic therapy.
The patient is also given enzyme preparations to restore the work of the gastrointestinal tract.
Previously, salmonellosis was treated with tetracycline and levomycetin. Now these drugs no longer apply. In addition, 20 years ago there were no strong antibiotics and saline solutions. And now they can be easily obtained in almost any pharmacy.
Usually in the hospital there are no more than 2 weeks. Sometimes it happens that after the expiration of the prescribed period of treatment the patient should be discharged from the hospital, but he still continues to secrete bacteria or even manifest symptoms of the disease. Then the patient is sent home, but the hospital sheet is not closed and continues to be observed at the polyclinic.
Diet after salmonellosis
The convalescent must continue taking antispasmodics, enzyme and substitute drugs. Also vitamins of group B.
will be useful to him. But the main thing is to follow a diet after salmonella: rude food and foods rich in fiber( salads, raw vegetables-fruit, cabbage juice) are excluded, since they put too much strain on the gastrointestinal tract.
It is not recommended to eat borsch, cabbage soup, rassolniki, harcho. Strictly forbidden smoked products, fatty, spicy and salty dishes. It is better to forget about the frying pan at the time of recovery.
First time is better to give up coffee, natural juices, dairy products and soda.
The diet should include vegetable and cereal soups, cereals, boiled vegetables, baked fruit. You can include fish and meat in the diet, but only in a boiled form. Kissels, compotes, tea are allowed. Diet( table number 4) must be observed for at least 2 weeks.
There are no restrictions on physical loads. After discharge from the hospital, the patient can immediately go to work - he no longer needs the observation of a therapist or infectious disease specialist.
For information of
Salmonella are very resistant to various effects: at room temperature, on the household items, bacteria persist for up to 3 months, in dry stool of animals - up to 4 years, in water - up to 5 months, in meat and dairy products - up to 6 months, oneggshell - up to 24 days;
Salmonella almost instantly die at 100 ° C and for 30 minutes at 70 ° C.When pathogens are found in meat products, they become much more resistant to high temperatures. For example, 400 g of meat with a thickness of 19 cm should be boiled for 2.5 hours;
Bacteria can withstand very low temperatures, down to -80 ° C;Salmonella resistant to ultraviolet radiation;When treated with disinfectants, the pathogens die within 20 minutes.
Diet for salmonellosis
The diet for salmonellosis is a table number 4, which is prescribed for acute diseases and sharp exacerbations of chronic bowel diseases with severe diarrhea.
They write that they use 4 times a day, at the same time. The menu should include dishes that are liquid and semi-liquid, wiped, cooked in water and steamed. Salt food moderately.
Drinks - tea without milk, cocoa on water with a small amount of milk.
Bread products - wheat bread white and gray yesterday's baking, unmarked sorts of bakeries and cookies, white bread rolls.
Snacks - cheese is mild, low-fat herring, pate from meat of home cooking.
Milk and dairy products - low-fat freshly made curd, steam souffle, three-day kefir, acidophilus milk, sour cream in small amounts( add to dishes).
Fats - fresh butter for 5 g in dishes, melted and olive oil.
Eggs and egg dishes - 1 soft-boiled egg a day, an omelet, an egg can be added to different dishes.
Soups - cooked on low fat meat and fish broth with the addition of mucus broths of cereals( manna, rice), boiled and mashed meat, steam knels and meatballs, as well as egg flakes, homemade noodles, vermicelli.
Meat and fish dishes - various products from low-fat and minced beef, veal and fish. Cooking is better for a couple, when roasting, the products do not crumble in breadcrumbs. Recommended soufflé from boiled meat, minced meat.
Cereals and pasta - mashed porridge on water or skimmed broth - rice, oatmeal, buckwheat, from cereal flour, in the form of baked puddings and cutlets from cereals without coarse crust;pasta and noodles.
Vegetables and greens - puree from various vegetables, puddings, vegetable patties, baked or roasted without coarse crust. Cabbage boiled colored with butter, stewed early zucchini and pumpkin. Crushed early raw greens, dill and parsley are recommended to add to various dishes.
Fruits and berries - puree, jelly, jelly, mousse, jam, made from fresh and dried fruits and berries. Sugar, sweets.
Juices - in a limited amount, consume fruit, berry and vegetable raw juices, in a warm form and half diluted with water or tea. A decoction of hips and wheat bran is useful.
- Products from buttery and warm dough.
- Fatty grades of meat and fish;salting, smoking, marinades;meat, fish and other canned snacks;sausages.
- Millet, pearl barley, barley cereals.
- Cold and carbonated drinks, coffee with milk;ice cream, chocolate, products with cream.
- Vegetables and fruits in kind;mustard, horseradish, pepper, beans;mushrooms.
Sample menu for diarrhea
Variant No. 1
First breakfast: rubbed oatmeal on water;freshly cooked cottage cheese;tea.
Second breakfast: decoction of dried blueberries.
Lunch: meat broth with semolina;steamed meatballs;rubbed rice porridge on the water;jelly.
Snack: warm unsweetened broth of dogrose.
Dinner: omelette steam;mashed buckwheat porridge on the water;tea.
Variant No. 2
First breakfast: 300 grams of rice porridge in water with the addition of a third of milk and 5 g of butter;100 g fresh fresh cottage cheese with 10-15 g sour cream and 5 grams of sugar;a glass of tea.
Second breakfast: boiled chicken with rice;albumen omelet;tea;bread.
Lunch: soup on meat broth with vermicelli;125 grams of steamed meat cutlets;150 g of carrot puree;a glass of apple jelly.
Dinner: 85 g of boiled fish;150 g of mashed potatoes;an unhealthy bun;25 g of Russian cheese;a glass of tea.
At night: a glass of non-sour kefir with white bread or a glass of tea with dry biscuits( biscuits, dried biscuit).
For the whole day: 400 g of white bread;50 g of sugar( part of sugar can be replaced with jam, sweets).
Specialists are obliged to conduct veterinary and sanitary supervision of slaughtering and processing carcasses, to check whether various food companies, factories, catering establishments, grocery stores comply with the sanitary rules: whether they cook, store and sell food correctly. Physicians are obliged to examine people who are employed in such places.
Citizens should remember that you can not eat fresh milk and raw eggs in your food. Also, you need to properly handle toys and childcare items( especially the nipples).And the best prevention of salmonellosis is regular hand washing.