Pylorosthenosis is the stenosis of the pylorus. This disease is considered one of the acquired complications of peptic ulcer. It is expressed in the reduction of the lumen at the time of transition from the stomach into the intestine. This greatly complicates the movement of food through the digestive tract. This condition leads to changes in homeostasis. It occurs practically only in the adult population.
- 1 Stenosis of the gatekeeper. Causes of development of
- 2 The main stages of the disease
- 3 Methods for diagnosing "stenosis of the pylorus of the stomach"
- 4 Congenital stenosis of the pylorus
- 5 Reasons for the development of esophageal stasis
- 6 Signs of esophageal stasis
- 7 Methods of diagnosis
- 8 Reflection of the disease in the picture of laboratory data and ECG
Stenosis of the gatekeeper. Causes of development
The main cause is a scar, which appears after healing of the ulcerous surface. Such scars consist of connective tissue, they greatly reduce the mobility of the wall of the stomach, as it tightens it. Also, stenosis appears as a result of the growth of a cancerous tumor inside the stomach wall.
As a result, food stagnates in the stomach. After all, it can not fully advance along the digestive tract. To somehow remove food from the stomach, the body provokes the growth of muscle tissue. This leads to compensation of the condition with stenosis.
But the hypertrophied layer of the stomach also fails to cope with the existing loads. Therefore, gradually the stomach is stretched due to a significant amount of stomach contents. The accumulating food stays anyway. Multiplying microbes provoke active fermentation, decomposition.
The main stages of the disease
The first stage is compensated pyloric stenosis. The passage is slightly narrowed. The patient feels a feeling of heaviness and fullness of the stomach after eating. Appears sourish eructation. Vomiting improves well-being for a short period of time. The condition can be called satisfactory.
The second stage is the stage of the subcompensation. Unpleasant feeling of fullness of the stomach is accompanied by painful sensations, weight, eructation. Vomiting can occur even during meals. After vomiting, the person feels a little better. After some time, a person significantly sheds weight.
If you palpate the stomach, then in the navel area you can feel the splash.
The third stage is the stage of decompensation. At this stage, the stomach stretches, and exhaustion only increases. Dehydration is added to it. Frequent vomiting does not give proper relief. In the vomit, there are remains of food eaten many days ago. Therefore, from the contents of the vomit, an awful smell emanates.
Methods for diagnosing "stenosis of the pylorus of the stomach"
For an accurate diagnosis, several methods are used:
- X-ray( see whether the stomach is enlarged, narrowed, whether the peristalticactivity, for what time the evacuation of food from the stomach passes);
- esophagogastroduodenoscopy ( makes it possible to determine whether the stomach is narrowed or widened, whether there is deformity);
- uzi( you can see an enlarged stomach only in later stages);
- electrogastroenterography - study of motor function( analyzes tone, stomach contractions, electrical activity).
This disease can be treated only surgically. Medicines should affect the body in two ways:
- treat the disease, adjusting the condition;
- prepare the body for surgery.
For the relief of the condition, antiulcer is used. In the treatment use means, the action of which is directed against metabolic disorders. Also engaged in restoring body weight. Prevention of stenosis pylorus reduces to the timely treatment of peptic ulcer under the supervision of a specialist.
Congenital stenosis of the pylorus
In children, this disease is exclusively congenital. Often determine its hereditary nature. In this case, there is a proliferation of connective tissue in the outlet region. Boys are prone to this pathology more often than girls four times.
This disorder is the main cause of gastric obstruction in infancy. The disease makes itself felt very early, literally in the second or fourth weeks. Strong vomiting attracts attention. Such vomiting is a fountain very often. If the operation is done on time, everything ends safely. Therefore, the precise and correct diagnosis is of great importance.
Causes of development of esophageal stenosis
The cause of this disease is the developmental disorder in the prenatal state. Since the first days of a newborn's life, you can see this pathology. The baby spews the milk quite stubbornly. If the stenosis is small, then at the stage of breastfeeding it can be overlooked, and when solid food starts to enter, it makes itself felt.
- the presence of scars caused by the course of diseases such as peptic ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux disease, infectious and inflammatory lesions of the stomach;
- traumatic lesion of the esophagus, burns;
- neoplasms of the esophagus or adjacent tissues;
- increased lymph nodes , aneurysm of the aorta, improper placement of blood vessels.
Symptoms of esophageal stenosis
There are several signs that can be used to diagnose esophageal stenosis, which are traditionally the following:
- unpleasant pain when eating, and the pain is felt as food moves through the esophagus;
- is constantly observed salivation;
- feels nausea, often there is vomiting, belching.
There are several degrees of damage in esophageal stenosis:
- First degree. When swallowing solid foods from time to time there are problems. In general, the condition is satisfactory.
- Second degree. The esophagus can only be eaten in semi-liquid form.
- Third degree. Only the liquid food can pass through the esophagus.
- Fourth degree. It is very difficult to swallow even saliva, water.
Methods for diagnosing
To make a diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct some studies, they include the following:
- X-ray examination( barium suspension added);
Treatment is carried out in the early stages of conservative, it reduces to the control of nutrition. Also, patients take medication prescribed by a doctor. In the late stages - only operational. During the operation, the scars are dissected, the esophagus is brought into the appropriate shape, the is applied to the gastrostomy.
Reflection of the disease in the picture of laboratory data and ECG
Anemia can be observed in the general blood test( normochromic or hypochromic ).This is due to impoverishment of the intake of various nutritional and valuable substances into the body, especially iron. Increases the number of red blood cells at a time when there is multiple vomiting, the body is dehydrated. Dehydration also results in a thickening of the blood. This increases hemoglobin, can increase .
In the biochemical analysis of blood, the content of protein and albumin is reduced. When vomiting occurs repeatedly, there are also signs of dehydration. These are electrolyte disorders: hyponatremia , hypochloraemia , hypokalemia , hypocalcemia .Sometimes the amount of iron decreases. Hypochloremia leads to an increase in the level of urea in the blood.
ECG results show changes in the diffuse myocardium: the amplitude of the T wave decreases in several leads .If the electrolyte composition of the blood is disturbed, this will affect the ECG accordingly. If there is gipokaltsiemiya , there will be an elongation of the ventricular electric systole - Q-T interval, sometimes a shortening of the P-Q interval and a decrease in the amplitude of the T wave.
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