Diseases of the gallbladder are common in older people, mostly in women. This is due primarily to the structure of the female genitourinary system. The list of pathologies of this body is very impressive. It includes: cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, biliary dyskinesia, polyps, gall bladder cancer.
- 1 Cholecystitis
- 2 Cholelithiasis
- 3 Gallbladder dyskinesia
- 4 Gallbladder polyps
- 5 Gallbladder cancer
Cholecystitis or gallbladder inflammation is a very common disease of the abdominal organs. The main cause of its occurrence is an infection that is delivered to the site of inflammation with a blood stream. Cholecystitis occurs against tonsillitis, pyelonephritis, viral diseases of the liver and even periodontitis. Predisposing factors can be: obesity, diabetes, food with a predominance of animal fats, a sedentary lifestyle. Symptoms of the disease vary depending on its odds. Acute cholecystitis manifests itself by fever, intense pain in the right side, chills, increased gassing of the intestines, nausea and vomiting. Usually this form of cholecystitis does not arise as an independent disease, but develops against the background of cholelithiasis. The lack of medical assistance in this case promotes the spread of the inflammatory process to nearby organs. Acute cholecystitis can be complicated by liver disease, inflammation of the bile duct or pancreas. The chronic form of the disease occurs much more often, it manifests itself in the form of constant aching pain in the right side and is amplified at the time of emotional stress, physical stress, with improper diet. The basis of treatment for cholecystitis is made up of antibiotics, in individual cases, anesthetics and antispasmodics are prescribed.
Gallstone disease associated with the formation of stones in the gallbladder and bile ducts in medicine is called cholelithiasis. Her appearance is most susceptible to older people, in children this pathology is not noted. Stones are not formed in the gallbladder of a healthy person. A predisposing factor to this may be a violation of metabolic processes in the body, stagnation of bile, as well as the presence of bile duct infection, atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes mellitus. In some cases, cholelithiasis proceeds without any noticeable symptoms, the presence of stones in the gallbladder can be detected by ultrasound examination of this organ. A characteristic sign of the disease is biliary colic that occurs periodically. The first symptoms of pathology can manifest themselves five to ten years after the onset of its development. This, as a rule, pains under the ribs in the right side, bitterness in the mouth, upset of the chair, nausea, frequent heartburn. The use of fatty or spicy foods provokes an increase in these symptoms. Chronic gallstone disease can lead to serious consequences. For example, to pancreonecrosis, cholecystitis or cirrhosis of the liver. Treating stones in the gallbladder is carried out depending on such factors as the age of the patient, the size of the stones, their number, etc. When exacerbations are prescribed painkillers. Particularly severe cases require the patient to be placed in the hospital and intravenously administered medications. Stones in the gallbladder can be accompanied by its inflammation, in this case, prescribe antibiotics. During treatment, the patient must adhere to a strict diet, thereby facilitating the work of the pancreas, its nutrition should consist of low-fat boiled food. In the case of low efficiency of conservative treatment, crushing stones in the gall bladder is carried out using a sound wave, the size of the stones should not exceed 3 centimeters. In severe disease, complete removal of the gallbladder( laparoscopic cholecystectomy) is recommended.
Dyskinesia of the gallbladder
Dyskinesia of the gallbladder is a violation of the motor function of the body, resulting from infection, intoxication of the body, diseases of the digestive and urinary systems, malnutrition, hormonal failure. Violation of the function can manifest itself in different ways. In those cases when the gallbladder is practically not contracted, which leads to a constant outflow of bile from it, they speak of hypotonic dyskinesia. If this body is in a state of contraction and does not release bile at all, the term "hypertonic dyskinesia" is used. The main sign of a lack or overabundance of bile is the taste of bitterness in the mouth, nausea after eating, heaviness or pain in the right side of the abdomen, belching and heartburn. The consequence of stagnation of bile in the gallbladder can be the formation in it of stones, inflammation. To treat the disease, specialists usually prescribe drugs that relieve spasms, as well as diuretics and sedatives. A prerequisite for recovery is diet. Nutrition of the patient should consist of fresh, low-fat products, skim milk, vegetable fats and meat allowed to be consumed in very small quantities. The list of prohibited products includes oil, eggs and fish. Daily carrots, pumpkins, grapefruits, oatmeal are recommended.
Gallbladder polyps of the
Gallbladder polyps occur frequently, mainly in women who have reached thirty-five years of age. Inflammatory polyps are formed on the mucous membrane of the bladder as a response to inflammation and consist of granulation tissue. Cholesterol polyp is formed in the form of a small outgrowth on the wall of the gallbladder and consists of cholesterol deposits. Such neoplasms, as a rule, are safe and in most cases do not manifest themselves in any way. Some patients with polyps in the gallbladder may experience minor pain in the right side of the abdomen, not tolerate certain types of food. Polyps reaching ten millimeters are subject to mandatory surgical removal, since there is a possibility of their degeneration into a cancerous tumor. Polyps of small size usually do not pose a threat to human life in terms of their future degeneration, but the expert can give the right advice on whether to remove them or not. The diagnosis is based on the results of ultrasound of the gallbladder.
Benign neoplasms of the gallbladder also include papillomas and adenomas. The first are papillary growths of the mucous membrane of the organ. An adenoma is a proliferation of glandular tissue. These lesions are also subject to removal. In the event that the patient for any reason refuses the operation, he must undergo a thorough examination of the gall bladder in the future at least two times a year. The doctor at the same time fixes the changes that have occurred with neoplasm for a certain period of time. If the patient has pain in the right side, heartburn, taste of bitterness in the mouth, he should immediately consult a specialist who is most likely to decide to perform a surgical procedure. In the case of benign neoplasms complete removal of the gallbladder is usually not required, removing the tumor itself is quite enough to complete recovery. The operation, during which only the polyp or benign tumor is removed, is called endoscopic polypectomy. After its holding all the functions of the body are preserved.
Gall bladder cancer
Gallbladder cancer develops in people who have reached 50 years, mainly in women. At the first stages of the development of the disease, it is not possible to detect it without applying the methods of modern medicine. Its symptoms appear when the tumor has already reached a considerable size, affects the entire gallbladder, liver, bile ducts and basic digestive organs. Metastases are usually found in the pleura, the nearest lymph nodes, ovaries, and the liver. The main sign of a malignant tumor of the gallbladder is pain in the right side, giving in the back, amplifying at night. The only way to treat this disease is the complete removal of organs, which it managed to touch. The outcome of such events, as a rule, is poor in almost all cases. After a successful operation, the patient can live more than five years without recurrence of the disease.