When children are ill, parents want to help cope with the disease as quickly as possible. But there are diseases that, even after a long time after recovery, continue to cause trouble in the form of residual effects - a runny nose, a cough and the like. This is also acute obstructive bronchitis in children.
Acute obstructive bronchitis in children is a serious illness that is accompanied by expiratory dyspnea called bronchial obstruction syndrome. Such bronchitis is a rather frequent phenomenon, about a quarter of all bronchitis occurs precisely with obstruction syndrome. Often, when it comes to obstructive bronchitis, mean bronchiolitis, and the difference between them is only in some clinical differences.
Children under the age of three are most likely to develop acute obstructive bronchitis: they have such bronchitis accompanied by viral diseases caused by cytomegalovirus, C-type influenza virus, as well as by the PCV virus and adenoviruses, accompanied by typhoid fever, diphtheria, whooping cough. Older children get obstructive bronchitis on the background of a viral infection caused by chlamydia and mycoplasmas.
However, the causes of acute bronchitis can not always be only viruses: sometimes the symptoms of such bronchitis are manifested due to the effects of toxic or chemical substances on the respiratory tract, as well as due to some physical factors.
Symptoms of acute obstructive bronchitis in children.
Bronchitis begins with an increase in temperature, and it can not be said to what the temperature should rise and how many days it should hold - all this depends on the viral pathogen provoking bronchitis. For example, bronchitis, accompanying adenovirus infection, can keep the temperature up to ten days.
The main symptom of bronchitis, of course, is a cough: usually at first the cough is dry, obtrusive, but after it becomes viscous, moist and coughing.
The mechanism of development of acute obstructive bronchitis is as follows: in the lumen, sputum, mucous membrane, basal membrane accumulate, compression of the respiratory tract, reduction of bronchial muscles is observed.
Expert opinion: This development mechanism is incomprehensible. With the development of obstruction, sputum production increases, small bronchi narrow, and the mucous membrane swells.making the patient difficult to breathe, wheezing dry and wet, shortness of breath.
The most common obstruction occurs in children due to the fact that the mucosa is swelling and therefore the airways are narrowed. Bronchospasm happens much less often.
Obstructive bronchitis usually begins as an acute respiratory viral disease - ARVI - and the symptoms are similar. It differs only in that the symptoms of bronchitis grow with time - on the third or fourth day of the disease, breathing difficulties can occur, its frequency increases, the exhalation becomes sibilant and noisy. With such bronchitis, the frequency of inhalation-exhalation can be up to fifty times per minute.
Visually, a bloated chest can be identified, as well as the fact that auxiliary muscles are involved in breathing. The wings of the nose are uncharacteristically inflated, subclavian and supraclavicular areas participate in the breath. A fairly common symptom is the characteristic pallor of the skin. Cough infrequent, but unproductive, almost does not cough. During the breathing, the child's whistling and buzzing rattles are heard, which will later become more humid.
Usually, the diagnosis results require the results of an X-ray: the picture shows a swelling of the lungs. In children of adolescence, such bronchitis often passes with angina or with lymphadenitis of the neck. The diagnosis is often complicated due to similar symptoms of obstructive bronchitis and bronchiolitis, in addition, obstructive bronchitis and bronchial asthma are often confused, especially at the first stage of the examination, since in a quarter of cases bronchial asthma is "masked" under the symptoms of obstructive bronchitis.
These two diseases differ in the presence( in obstructive bronchitis) or in the absence( in bronchial asthma) of the association with ARVI.On acute bronchitis may indicate and laboratory indicators: increased ESR, neutrophilia, if the bronchitis accompanies a bacterial infection, the leukocyte formula is shifted to the left.
Treatment and prevention of acute obstructive bronchitis
Treatment of acute obstructive bronchitis is based on the same principles as the treatment of simple bronchitis. While the temperature does not return to normal, the child is assigned a bed rest. A diet based on dairy and plant foods is offered, as well as abundant drinking such as herbal teas and mineral water. Antitussives are combined with expectorants.
Expert opinion: It is impossible to combine such funds - this is a fact. With a dry obtrusive cough, antitussives are used. With a damp cough, these drugs are contraindicated and expectorants are being used.
But additional methods can be used - oxygen therapy if respiratory failure is strongly pronounced. In addition, procedures for a distracting nature are appointed - foot baths, the water in which gradually rises to forty-one degrees, as well as hand baths and massage with medical cans. With obstruction, the fight is suggested by bronchodilators - the berotek through the nebulizer, terbutaline or ventolin.
Obstructive bronchitis is a unpleasant thing even by the fact that even with complete cure, the disease can recur after the next ARVI disease. Usually it repeats such bronchitis within six months. Children with this form of bronchitis are sick before the age of four, and after four years of obstruction they do not return.
The prognosis of acute obstructive bronchitis may not be as favorable if the child is predisposed to allergies. During attacks of allergy, obstructions can be repeated, develop spontaneously, there may be relapses. Approximately one in four children who underwent acute chronic obstructive bronchitis, subsequently develops bronchial asthma.
In order to prevent obstructive bronchitis, it is necessary to protect the child from contact with allergens. In general, acute obstructive bronchitis can be diagnosed at the very beginning of the disease, which means that the treatment measures are developed and introduced at the initial stage, which minimizes the risk that the bronchitis will develop into a chronic form.