Disease Leptospirosis is an infectious disease that can flow through the influenza type and leave behind unwanted effects in the form of a persistent decrease in immunity. In patients who have recovered, massive candidiasis lesions of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract often develop. We suggest that you learn how leptospirosis manifests in a person, how it can be treated. What measures can be taken to prevent morbidity?
Where and how to catch leptospirosis
Farmer lambs and goats provide people with valuable food and wool, but at the same time they spread a dangerous disease - leptospirosis. What is this ailment and how it proceeds.
What infection is responsible for the development of leptospirosis? This disease causes bacteria leptospira. They have the form of a spiral and move, rotating along the axis. These microbes are very fond of heat and moisture - in water they can live up to 3 months. Interestingly, leptospira are widely distributed around the world, and Russia is no exception.
Disease leptospirosis: as transmitted by
It is possible to infect leptospirosis by eating rodent-infected foods, as well as when bathing in dirty water. Bacteria penetrate the body through the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, eyes, genitals, or if there are wounds and injuries on the skin.
There is a risk of catching an infection when slaughtering and cutting the meat of an infected animal, working with the soil into which the pathogens got into. Now you know how the leptospirosis is transmitted.
Do cattle breeders get sick more often? In the risk group, residents of rural areas, milkmaids, shepherds, veterinarians, people working in wetland meadows can be recorded.
How do bacteria behave in the body? First they penetrate into the lymph nodes, from there they flow with the current of lymph throughout the body and settle in various organs( liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, central nervous system).There, leptospires actively multiply and release dangerous toxins that poison the body, destroy red blood cells, destroy the walls of blood vessels and disrupt blood coagulability.
Symptoms of leptospirosis in humans
The incubation period takes from 4 days to 2 weeks. The disease begins acutely: the patient develops severe intoxication, chills, body temperature rises to 39-40 ° C, abdominal pain, muscle aches( especially gastrocnemius), weakness, weakness, insomnia, severe thirst. These are the symptoms of human leptospirosis.
With mild forms of the disease, the patient has a fever for 2-3 days, accompanied by intoxication. The organs do not suffer from this.
In case of moderate leptospirosis, the patient has liver and spleen, jaundice and pain in right side, skin becomes dry, itching, vomiting. These are adverse symptoms of leptospirosis.
The rash may also appear on the body. Many patients have signs of kidney damage.
In severe forms of the disease can develop complications of the central nervous system, myocarditis, colon ulcer, open internal bleeding. Cramps, upsets of consciousness, up to a coma are possible.
Symptoms of leptospirosis
There are characteristic signs of leptospirosis, according to which the disease differs from hepatitis. In contrast to hepatitis with leptospirosis there is no pre-zhelthus period, and the temperature rises simultaneously with the appearance of jaundice.
Even with hepatitis there are no pains in the muscles, while with leptospirosis they are very strong.
Diagnosis of leptospirosis and analyzes of
The diagnosis of leptospirosis is complex. First, they collect an anamnesis: they ask what the patient ate, where they bathed, whether they contacted animals. They take blood and urine for analysis.
Bacterial sowing of blood helps to identify the pathogen, however, this is a too long method. Therefore, the blood is examined for antibodies to leptospira. These tests with leptospirosis make it possible to differentiate the diagnosis.
Treatment of leptospirosis in humans
Leptospirosis, as a rule, is severe, so the patient must be in the hospital. He needs a bed rest, a full meal, plenty of drink.
Treatment of leptospirosis in humans includes antimicrobial agents.
Symptomatic treatment of leptospirosis with analgesics, antihistamines, enterosorbents( for the removal of intoxication) is also shown.
Doctors should constantly monitor blood coagulability and the work of the patient's internal organs. In acute kidney failure, the patient undergoes hemodialysis( extrarenal blood purification).
When does the patient recover? With proper treatment from the 4th week begins a gradual recovery and the infected completely gets rid of leptospira. If the patient turned to the doctor on time, the leptospirosis was quickly diagnosed and began to be treated, complications and relapses will not occur.
How long does the recovery period last? About 6 months. The patient needs to be observed, as relapse of the disease is possible. In addition, the convalescent person should regularly take urine for analysis to monitor the restoration of kidney and liver function.
Can the disease go into chronic form? No, leptospirosis is only acute. Immunity in the patient is formed for a long time, but only to a certain kind of leptospira. Therefore, there is a possibility of infection by bacteria of a different species. And a vaccine against leptospirosis was developed.
What complications are possible with leptospirosis? Because of the fact that blood coagulability is violated in this disease, the development of hemorrhagic syndrome is possible. With it in the muscles and tissues burst blood vessels and open bleeding - gastric, pulmonary. A rash on the skin may also indicate this syndrome. Internal bleeding can be fatal. Deplorable consequences for themselves can lead to acute renal failure, which often develops with leptospirosis.
Complications can go to the adrenal glands, eyes, liver. There is a risk of infectious-toxic shock. In pregnancy, leptospirosis can lead to miscarriage.
Prevention of leptospirosis
Forethought will not hurt never. Prevention of leptospirosis is easy and involves simple measures of hygienic safety. Use only processed foods. Boil water and milk. Exterminate mice and rats. Bathe, wash, wash dishes in nature only in running water. Avoid the ponds where the cattle are taken. Keep food in a sealed container where rodents do not reach it.