The most common parasites in the human liver are lamblia, echinococci and flukes. When cysts penetrate the body, infection with such parasitic liver diseases as lambliasis, echinococcosis, opisthorchiasis and fascioliasis occurs. To avoid infection of young children, it is recommended to start pets only when the kids master at least the simplest personal hygiene skills.
Lamblia are parasites that live in the human liver
Parasites( from the Greek parasitos - "parasites") are organisms that use other living organisms as their habitat and suck in ready-made nutrients from the host because they do not have their owndigestive system.
Parasitic liver diseases reduce the human capacity to work and its resistance to infectious diseases, reduce the effectiveness of preventive vaccinations, and may cause mental and physical developmental delay in children.
The symptoms of parasites in the liver and the treatment of the diseases caused by them are described below.
Lamblias move very fast with 3 pairs of flagella, but they multiply even faster. Only 1 day with feces of the infected person in the environment gets about 1 billion cysts( the temporal form of existence of many unicellular organisms, characterized by the presence of a dense protective shell, as well as the shell itself).
Parasitic liver damage Giardiasis
Giardiasis is a parasitic liver infection, a typical disease of dirty hands. In the area of special risk are small children. During any contact, an infected child "shares" his lamblias with a healthy neighbor, 8-10 cysts are enough for infection. And then a chain reaction begins.
Giardia cysts settle on the soil of gardens and vegetable gardens, on greenery and fruits, carried by dogs, cats, flies. When through the food the cysts enter the stomach, their protective shell dissolves under the action of gastric juice, the flagella are released, and the parasites begin a new life.
Another way of infection with Giardiasis is through water. The chlorine concentrations used for tap water purification do not have a harmful effect on lamblia cysts, which can survive in water for up to 3 months, can withstand freezing and heating to 50 ° C and die only when boiled.
The main symptoms of parasite presence in the liver are:
- pain in the abdomen;
- flatulence( bloating) as a result of a violation of the intestinal microflora;
- feeling of weakness, weakness;
- decreased performance, drowsiness, increased fatigue;
- headache, dizziness, attention disturbance and memory loss.
Symptoms of parasites in the human liver in chronic giardiasis:
- pallor of the skin ( especially the face) with a normal level of hemoglobin in the blood;
- "marble nose" - with a long course of the disease and a high degree of intoxication;
- uneven( "multi-colored") color of the skin on the extensor surface of the hands, legs, chest and abdomen: pale yellow and brick red;
- Lip lip damage: from mild exfoliation and dryness to cracks with seizures.
Constant deficiency of nutrients necessary for the life of the organism also leads to the development of anemia( anemia), weight loss and decreased immunity.
Diagnosis of parasitic liver damage Giardiasis is performed by:
- Studies of feces and contents of the duodenum ( obtained by sounding) on lamblia cysts.
- Immunoenzyme analysis of blood: revealing specific antibodies directed at combating foreign microorganisms.
- Enterotest - a relatively new method, when the patient swallows a gelatin capsule, inside of which is a nylon thread. In the intestine, the capsule dissolves, and the parasites adhere to the filament. After 2 hours, the filament leaves the body together with the calves and undergoes microscopic examination.
Treatment of parasites caused by human liver disease is carried out in three stages:
Elimination of toxicosis, improvement of enzymatic activity of the intestine and correction of the body's immune system:
- the appointment of a special diet that prevents the reproduction of lamblia( porridge, dried fruits, vegetables, vegetable oil);
- restriction of the use of carbohydrates;
- administration of cholagogue and antihistamines;
- administration of enterosorbents;
- carrying out fermentotherapy.
Intensive antiparasitic therapy.
Increasing the body's defenses and creating conditions that prevent the proliferation of lamblia in the intestine and gallbladder:
- diet( since lamblia is extremely unfavorable to the acid environment, it is recommended to acidify food and consume more sour-milk products);
- reception of multivitamins and herbal preparations that can increase the body's resistance to harmful effects.
How to avoid infection:
- Start your pets only when your children master hygienic skills: will learn how to properly wash their hands, monitor their nails, take a shower every day.
- Eliminate bad habits in children: gnaw nails, pencils, toys, sucking fingers.
- Wash fruits and vegetables with with a brush, rinse with boiled water.
- Do not eat outdoors: patties, ice cream and other products.
- Drink only boiled or filtered water.
- Do not bathe in unknown water.
What parasites live in the liver: echinococci
Echinococci are parasites living in the liver, their size reaches 0.5 cm, the head is equipped with suckers and 2 rows of hooks.
As seen in the photo, in these parasites affecting the liver, the cervix is very short, and the segments in this helminth are only 3 or 4:
A multi-chambered bubble( cyst) filled with a liquid and containing hundreds of parasite larvae is formed in the affected organ.
The cyst can reach a large size. Its mechanical action( pressure) leads to a violation of the liver and may manifest as jaundice, ascites or intestinal obstruction. In addition, the body of the host from the parasite bubble receives the products of its vital activity, which leads to the appearance of an allergic reaction.
Echinococcosis is a chronic helminthic disease of humans and animals caused by a ribbon worm echinococcus.
Ways of infection:
- through dirty hands;
- when using unwashed or poorly washed vegetables, fruits and berries( especially forest), herbs and greens;
- in contact with domestic and farm animals.
Having identified the symptoms of these parasites in the human liver, treatment is assigned exceptionally prompt: removal of the cyst and tissue suturing in the affected organ.
How to get rid of parasites in the liver with opisthorchiasis
What other parasites live in the liver and other organs of man?
The causative agent of the opisthorchiasis is a cat's( Siberian) fluke, it belongs to the type of flatworms, to the class of flukes. The form of the helminth leaf-shaped( 5-13 mm in length and 1-3 mm in width).Each sexually mature specimen contains about 1,000 eggs. When they get into the environment, they persist: on the ground for 10 days, in reservoirs - up to 1 year. Especially dangerous for humans are infected shellfish and fish, as they are intermediate hosts in which the flukes live 2.5 years.
The source of infection can be both a sick person and carriers of the opisthorchosis: fish, shellfish and carnivores( cats, dogs, foxes, arctic foxes).
The risk of infection increases with the entry of pathogens into large water bodies, which become endemic( natural) foci of infection.
Symptoms of opisthorchiasis:
- nausea and vomiting;
- increased body temperature;
- allergic skin rashes;
- increase in the level of leukocytes, eosinophils;
- pain in the muscles and joints;
- frequent bouts of pain in the right hypochondrium;
- dizziness, severe headaches;
- insomnia, frequent mood swings, increased irritability;
- liver is usually evenly enlarged and compacted;However, in some patients only one part of it is affected( right or left);
- The gallbladder is significantly enlarged and is in constant tension, which causes blunt, distending pain in the right hypochondrium.
Before you can get rid of parasites in the liver, you need to pass the necessary tests.
Treatment of opisthorchiasis is carried out in 3 stages, as well as with giardiasis.
Prevention of opisthorchiasis: eating only well-cooked, fried and carefully salted fish.
Decontamination of fish is achieved:
- by freezing for 7 hours at -40 ° C or 32 h at -28 ° C
- by salting in a salt solution with a density of 1.2 g / l at a temperature of 2 ° C for 10-40 days(depending on the weight of the fish);
- by cooking, at least 20 minutes from the moment of boiling;
- by frying under a closed lid, at least 20 minutes.
How to remove parasites from the liver with fascioliasis
The fascioliasis pathogens are two - hepatic( 1.2 cm x 0.5 cm) and giant( 3 cm x 1.5 cm) flukes. These parasites living in the human liver have a leaf-shaped body and parasitize the liver and bile ducts. The final masters of fasciolae are people, small and large cattle, pigs, horses, and intermediate - freshwater mollusks.
Helminth eggs are excreted into the environment with animal feces. When the egg enters the water, a larva emerges from it, which is introduced into the intermediate host, the mollusk. In his body, it not only grows, but also multiplies. Larvae of the second generation emerge from the body of the mollusk into the water and, actively moving by the tail, settle on the pond and turn into cysts.
Infection occurs when people drink raw water, eat food from plants that are found in water and in wet places, or when swimming. In the human body, the larvae are introduced into the wall of the small intestine, and then transferred to the liver with blood flow.
Symptoms of fascioliasis:
- decreased appetite, nausea, sometimes vomiting;
- pain of paroxysmal nature in the right hypochondrium;
- increased body temperature;
- increase in blood levels of leukocytes, eosinophils, acceleration of ESR.
Before you remove these parasites from the liver, you need to undergo a full medical examination. In the treatment of ficiosis in the acute stage, diet and antihistamines are prescribed. Further anthelmintic therapy is carried out. To release the bile duct from the dead parasites, cholagogue preparations are used.
The control of the effectiveness of treatment is carried out 3 and 6 months after the course of therapy by examining feces or intestinal contents obtained by probing.
Improvement of the sanitary and hygienic culture of the population in relation to water supply and food products. Fighting fascioliasis of farm animals - de-worming animals, changing pastures, irrigation and drainage measures.