Poisoning: types, symptoms, first aid

At the initial stage, symptoms of poisoning of any kind are manifested equally: a person experiences pain in the abdomen, it is sick, dizziness and upset stomach. In the future, depending on the type of poisoning, there may be a violation of breathing until it stops. How to help with poisoning before the arrival of a doctor to alleviate the suffering of the victim?

What are the types of poisoning and their symptoms

Poisoning is a pathological condition that occurs when the body is exposed to poisons and toxins. The higher the toxicity of a chemical, the less its amount can cause poisoning.

Most often, poisoning is caused by drugs, chemicals( household chemicals, acids, alkalis), overdue or poor-quality food, poisonous plants, gases and toxic fumes.

Below you will find out what are the types of poisoning, and how to provide first aid to the victim before the arrival of a doctor.


  • food poisoning
  • medical poisoning
  • alcohol poisoning
  • poisoning by
  • chemical poisoning gases
  • poisoning caused by insect bites, snakes, animals   

Symptoms of poisoning depend on the type of poison or toxin and the way it enters the body.

Poisoning substances can enter the body in various ways:

  • during ingestion of
  • through the skin and mucous membranes of
  • through the respiratory tract
  • when bitten by a poisonous animal

The most typical signs of poisoning are: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, psychomotor agitationor retardation. The patient may have tachycardia or a bradycardia, a threadlike pulse, pale skin, possibly a state of collapse. In the absence of timely care, kidney failure may occur, which is manifested by a delay or complete cessation of urination. Poisoning with poisons, which act on the central nervous system, may cause breathing problems until it is completely stopped.

After identifying signs of poisoning, first aid should be started immediately.

How to provide first aid to a person with poisoning

How to help a person with poisoning through the digestive tract:

  • Call an ambulance.
  • Give the affected person a drink of 4-5 glasses of warm water.
  • Induce vomiting by pressing on the root of the tongue or tickling the pharynx. In a number of cases, vomiting occurs independently as a result of stretching the walls of the stomach with water.
  • Rinse the stomach repeatedly until completely cleansed.
  • Give the victim 5 crushed tablets of activated carbon, washed down with water.
  • When vomiting in the unconscious state, turn the victim's head to one side.

How to give first aid in case of skin poisoning:

  • Unclog the victim and wash with water, contaminated with poison or toxins, skin areas.
  • Acids and alkalis should be washed off with warm water, chlorophos and leaded gasoline - cold. It should be washed for at least 5-10 minutes.
  • Call an ambulance.

How to provide first aid for poisoning if the poison has penetrated through the lungs:

  • Protect your own lungs( tie your mouth and nose with your handkerchief, trying to inhale the poisoned air as little as possible).
  • Remove victim from the area of ​​effect of the poison.
  • Call an ambulance.
  • Put the injured person in a horizontal position, free from the restraining clothes and ensure the flow of fresh air.
  • In the absence of breathing and cardiac activity, immediately begin performing artificial respiration and closed heart massage.