In the process of human evolution, the upper limb ceased to perform only the musculoskeletal function and turned into an instrument of labor. With the help of hands we perform all the work, create masterpieces of art, write, communicate, etc. All this has caused the upper limb to have very high mobility and amplitude of movements. And it is provided by several joints of hands:
- joints of hand and fingers.
Unfortunately, these joints are often amenable to negative effects of external and internal factors, which leads to their damage and restriction of function. The joints of the hands hurt with many diseases, but it is very important to determine the true cause of arthralgia, because this directly affects the treatment and its success.
In this article, you will find out what the joints of the upper extremities may ache, what it can lead to, what to do in such cases.
Small hand joints are often drawn into various pathological processes
Causes of pain in the hands
Brushes consist of a large number of bones and joints. This allows you to perform the smallest movements. If you have pain in the joints of the hands at rest or during the movements, then, most likely, you have some kind of disease or bruise. Because of usual fatigue, the pain in the small joints of the fingers is very rare. This is possible, for example, in a child after a long vacation, when the fingers have been resting for a long time and have lost the habit of writing.
Consider the main pathologies, which are accompanied by pain in the hands.
This is a chronic autoimmune systemic disease of connective tissue with a predominant lesion of the joints of the body. With rheumatoid arthritis all joints can become inflamed, but most often the joints of the hands, wrists and elbows are drawn into the pathological process.
Suffer people of all ages and even children. Women are sick 3 times more often than men. Pathology has a long course with alternating periods of exacerbations and remissions.
At the initial stage of rheumatoid arthritis, patients complain of aching joint pains, which intensify toward evening and disturb at night. By morning, pain, as a rule, passes, but is replaced by a feeling of stiffness in the affected joints. Muscle strength decreases, some people can not even squeeze their hand into a fist, gradually the muscles of the hands atrophy. Inflammation of the joints is symmetrical, that is, it is observed simultaneously on both hands.
If the disease worsens, there are external signs of inflammation: the pain intensifies, the joints swell, the skin over them becomes reddish and hot to the touch. Violated and the function of the limb.
Over time, the pathological process causes the destruction of the joints, which leads to severe and disabling hand deformities, typical of rheumatoid arthritis.
Typical deformity of the hand for rheumatoid arthritis
Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is a very difficult task. Therapy can be divided into basic( constant, supportive) and treatment during exacerbations. Apply potent drugs from the group of cytotoxic drugs, glucocorticoids, monoclonal antibodies, various ointments from pain.
This is a chronic degenerative-dystrophic disease of the musculoskeletal system, which is based on the gradual destruction of the cartilaginous tissue, which causes secondary changes in the form of loss of mobility and deformation of the joints.
In most cases, osteoarthritis affects the large joints of the body( knee, hip), but sometimes small arms articulations are involved in the pathological process. Such a course of the disease is typical for women after childbirth, in the climacteric period, during pregnancy, which confirms the role of female sex hormones in the pathogenesis of pathology.
Polyostoarthrosis progresses slowly. In the beginning, patients complain of a painful nature that occurs after work in which the hands are involved. After rest all unpleasant sensations pass. As the progress of arthrosis, the pain does not disappear on its own, it starts to bother the person and at rest, the joints become crunched, stiffness in them and deformation develops.
The knots of Bushard and Geberden that occur in the case of finger polyostoarthrosis
If you do not start to treat polyostoarthrosis, then eventually you completely lose the ability to perform finger movements, which leads to disability and the inability to self-service.
Psoriasis is not only a typical skin rash. Approximately in 10-15% of cases, this pathology occurs with joint damage. Most often, joints of the hands and feet become inflamed. For psoriatic arthritis is characterized by the so-called axial damage, when all the joints of one finger are inflamed simultaneously. In this case, it drastically swells, turns red and becomes like a sausage.
Arthritis in psoriasis has a chronic course with periods of exacerbations and remissions. It can develop simultaneously with a skin rash, after it or even outpace the appearance of rashes.
Arthritis in psoriasis
Such inflammation of the joints with time also leads to deformities, loss of limb function and disability of the person.
Gout is characterized by joint damage at the feet, but an atypical variant of this metabolic disease is quite common. Fingers on the hands become inflamed with gout more often in the fairer sex.
Gouty arthritis on the hands is very difficult to distinguish from rheumatoid in the initial stages. Help in diagnosis of the history and additional techniques. It is characterized by a paroxysmal course, and with exacerbation the pain syndrome is so severe that patients can not even touch the articulation. It swells, reddens, the skin above the joint is red and hot to the touch. The lesion is asymmetric, as in rheumatoid arthritis, for example, only the joints of the right hand can be inflamed.
If gout exists for a long time, then under the skin you can find specific nodules - tofusi. These are deposits of uric acid salts under the skin.
Gouty arthritis with tofus on fingers
Why does the wrist joint
hurt If the wrist joint( wrist) is aching, then, most likely, the problem is in the ligaments, muscles or nerves of this zone. For example, patients with carpal tunnel syndrome suffer from carpal tunnel syndrome, tenosynovitis of de Carven, epicondylitis of the elbow, etc. In these diseases, the pain is localized not strictly in the zone of the wrist joint, it spreads above and below it, certain areas of the skin also grow numb,in the hands.
If the pain is localized strictly in the area of the wrist, then most likely we are dealing with arthrosis( occurs in 10% of cases of generalized deforming osteoarthritis) or arthritis( most often this lesion occurs with rheumatoid arthritis in 50% of cases).
When arthrosis painful, appears after a day's work, accompanied by a crunch in the joint, the gradual development of its stiffness and deformation.
In rheumatoid arthritis, the lesion is symmetrical, there is a swelling of the joint, its morning stiffness.
Joint changes in arthritis and arthrosis
Causes of pain in the elbow joint
The elbow joint is complicated and superficial. This contributes to its frequent damage. Pain in the elbow worries not only athletes, but also other people. Consider the main diseases that are accompanied by this symptom.
Arthritis( inflammation) of the elbow joint can be caused by several factors. These are infectious agents( bacteria, viruses, fungi), and allergic reactions, and autoimmune processes. Arthritis can be acute and chronic. Regardless of the cause of the onset, the following symptoms of arthritis of the elbow can be distinguished:
- pain at rest or during movements;
- swelling of the joint;
- redness of the skin above it, increasing its local temperature;
- dysfunction of the limb.
On the back of the elbow joint is a synovial bag that performs a protective function. In case of its inflammation, bursitis occurs. Inside the inflammatory fluid accumulates, which causes the characteristic symptoms of the disease. The cause of bursitis can be infection, trauma or a constant increased load on the back surface of the elbow joint.
Symptoms of bursitis:
- pain is acute, pulsating, disturbing both at rest and under stress;
- the articulation area swells and reddens( especially the posterior surface), one can observe a tumor-like formation that can reach the size of a chicken egg( this is an inflamed bursa with fluid inside);
- movement is impaired due to pain and swelling.
Bursitis of the elbow joint
If the treatment of bursitis is not timely, especially of an infectious nature, then the contents of the synovial bag can be festered and spread to neighboring tissues with the development of phlegmon or sepsis. Therefore, bursitis refers to diseases that need quick help. In the treatment regimen necessarily include antibacterial drugs. Some folk remedies are indispensable here. Otherwise, it may be necessary to perform a surgical procedure.
Osteoarthritis of the elbow joint is relatively rare. It can be primary when the cause remains unknown, or secondary, when it occurs against the background of the underlying pathological condition, for example, posttraumatic arthrosis of the elbow.
Symptoms of osteoarthritis of the elbow joint are typical: painful character after overstrain, crunch, mobility restriction, limb deformation. At the last stages, complete immobility may occur, which causes a significant limitation of the functional activity of a person.
There are many more diseases that are manifested by pain in the joints of the hands, but most of them are not associated with damage to the structures of the joints themselves, surrounding tissues: ligaments, tendons, muscles, blood vessels, nerves.
If you are concerned about the pain in your hands for a long time, and it is accompanied by other warning signs, then do not hesitate to seek medical help. Do not self-medicate. It can be your hands or even your life.
- Causes of pain in the hands
- Why does the wrist ache
- Causes of pain in the elbow joint