This drug is popular due to its wide action on microorganisms, good patient tolerance and relatively few side effects.
Instruction for use
This agent is a semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic of the third generation. The effect of ceftriaxone is directed to sensitive gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms at a time when their active multiplication occurs. Components of the drug inhibit the processes of biosynthesis, passing in the cell walls of microorganisms.
Gram-positive microorganisms for which ceftriaxone acts are Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus bovis. Gram-negative microorganisms include Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Neisseria meningitidis, Morganella morganii, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella spp., Providenciaspp., Serratia marcescens, Treponema pallidum, Shigella spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia spp., and many strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Ceftriaxone may have an active effect on microorganisms tolerant to the group of penicillins and cephalosporins of the first generations. Insensitivity of some of the strains of bacteria listed above to the drug, most often, is acquired. It is caused by the production of beta-lactamase or cetrioxonase, which inactivates Ceftriaxone components.
Ceftriaxone is 100% bioavailable. It is completely absorbed into the tissues and body fluids of the patient after intramuscular injection. The maximum concentration of the drug is observed 2-3 hours after the injection. Ceftriaxone in minimal doses is present in the body even after 24 hours or more after intramuscular injection.
The half-life of the drug is from 5.8 hours to 8.7 hours in an adult patient. In elderly patients( from 75 years) this period increases to 16 hours, and in children it is 6.5 days and 8 days in newborns.
Ceftriaxone is partially excreted from the body by bile. However, most of it( up to 60% in adults and 70% in infants) is excreted by the kidneys along with the urine within 48 hours. If the patient has renal failure, excretion can be difficult, and cumulation is possible.
Indications for the use of the preparation
Ceftriaxone is prescribed for all kinds of infectious diseases that are caused by microorganisms that are sensitive to the drug. Among such diseases may be:
- infectious and inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and bile ducts;
- ENT diseases;
- infectious diseases of the urinary tract;
- respiratory tract disease;
- infectious diseases of bones and joints;
- infectious diseases of soft tissues and skin;
Freshly prepared Ceftriaxone solution is administered intramuscularly or intravenously. The method of administration of the drug and the dose is prescribed by the doctor individually, taking into account the nature of the disease, its development and complexity.
Side effects of
In some cases, an adverse reaction to Ceftriaxone from the side:
- of the gastrointestinal tract: vomiting, nausea;
- CNS: headache, dizziness;
- of the blood system: hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, etc.,
as well as allergic reaction of local and general nature.
Ceftriaxone is contraindicated in cases of intolerance to penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics, as well as in renal and hepatic insufficiency.