Bilirubin general and direct: normal, elevated and lowered levels of bilirubin

If you have pain in the right upper quadrant, a sharp darkening of the color of urine, the appearance of other symptoms of jaundice, it is urgent to donate blood for the determination of total bilirubin.

Expert opinion: Pain in the right hypochondrium and darkening of the urine are not symptoms of jaundice, because jaundice itself is a symptom. The above symptoms are manifestations of a certain lesion of the liver.

However, you need to know some points in order to correctly pass the analysis on the definition of this indicator.

As a rule, it is necessary to donate blood from the vein to simultaneously evaluate other parameters. Before passing the biochemical analysis, during which the level of bilirubin in the blood is determined, follow simple rules so as not to distort the results.

To begin with it is worth noting that the blood for bilirubin should be given on an empty stomach in the morning, and on the previous day try not to eat a lot of fatty foods to not load the liver. Sometimes it is necessary to reanalyze after 2 days, and before that, to observe a diet with a total energy value of approximately 500 kcal.

Also, about two days before a visit to the laboratory, do not exercise intensively with sports because physical activities in large volumes significantly alter the functioning of the liver. This can be seen in the following way: after an intensified run begins to ache in the side.

It is necessary to limit the intake of medications, preferably several weeks before taking the sample. This is due to the fact that taking drugs can change the content of various substances, as well as a number of indicators, which leads to difficulties in establishing the true causes of the disease.

When determining the level of yellow pigment in the blood, first determine the concentration of total bilirubin, then - the direct, and only then calculate the difference between them, which is the content of indirect bilirubin.

Expert opinion: It is not correct to talk about the yellow pigment in the blood, as this is not true. Blood from its being in it does not become yellow. Bilirubni he is bilirubin.

For a speedy recovery of the body after such an unpleasant procedure, eat a piece of chocolate or drink pomegranate juice.

Expert opinion: The procedure is no different from taking blood from a vein. Actually, this is what it looks like. The amount of blood that is taken from the patient is 5-6 ml, so the patient will not even feel this loss.

The most important hemochromic blood pigment is a common bilirubin, which is formed as a result of the destruction of hemoglobin. It has a characteristic coloration - orange-yellow. What is hemoglobin? It is a complex iron-containing protein, which is quite toxic to the human body, if it is located outside the red blood cells, which necessitates its excretion.

The erythrocytes live in blood for 120 days, after which they undergo disintegration, during which hemoglobin also breaks down into iron and globin( protein).Then, the globin oxidizes in the spleen, in its reticuloendothelial system, the product of this reaction through the blood enters the liver where its connection with glucuronic acid occurs and converts directly into direct bilirubin, which is excreted in the lumen of the duodenum.

What is the norm of bilirubin in the blood? Of course, this indicator is a constant, but it differs in newborns. They have increased bilirubin. This is due to the fact that the newly formed bile-excreting system of a newborn does not cope with processing the products of erythrocyte destruction. You should not stop this condition, unless, of course, the indicators are within the norms for newborns. Within a month, everything will finally form: the amount of bilirubin will conform to the norms of an adult.

Expert opinion: Normalization of bilirubin level in newborns is carried out in most cases, but there are episodes of diseases when the level of bilirubin remains high for a long time. For example, with nuclear jaundice or hemolytic disease of newborns. These diseases threaten the life of the child, and therefore require urgent medical measures. Thus, one can not unequivocally and confidently say that in a month the level of bilirubin will come back to normal.

The total bilirubin of a healthy person varies in the range 8.5-20.55 μmol / liter, direct - 1.5-5.2 μmol / liter.

If the functioning of this complex system is disturbed, then icteric syndrome arises: yellow mucous membranes first, especially noticeable on the eye proteins, then skin. This is due to the excessive accumulation of enzymes under the skin. Causes can be very different, and the consequences are severe, so you should immediately seek specialized care. It should be noted that not every pathology that caused jaundice can be cured, but without revealing the true cause it is impossible.

Jaundice, depending on the cause, can be of three types: hemolytic, parenchymal, mechanical.

Hemolytic jaundice occurs with increased destruction of erythrocytes, which causes a relative inadequacy of the system of utilization of the formed products. Most often occurs in patients with the pathology of the blood system, with intoxication with various toxic substances. The color of the skin is lemon yellow. With hemolytic jaundice, the stool is intensely colored.

Parenchymal jaundice is caused by damage to the liver parenchyma, which leads to a decrease in its detoxification function. Skin of saffron( orange-red) color with parenchymal jaundice.

In case of a violation of the outflow of bile caused by clogging of the bile duct, for example, by a stone, or by squeezing its lumen with a tumor, obstructive or mechanical jaundice develops. The color of the skin with this kind of jaundice is olive. Characterized by the pruritus that occurs due to the accumulation of bile acids under the skin, which in turn irritate the receptors. Also characteristic is a colorless, so-called acholic, stool, urine of the color of "dark beer".

It should be recalled that an elevated bilirubin content in either the blood or urine of a person does not yet mean the appearance of a disease that requires urgent treatment. For example, elevated bilirubin in the blood occurs in a hereditary disease - Gilbert's syndrome. It is characterized by the periodic nature of the current. This pathology is due to heredity: if your close relatives have it, then the likelihood of development is high for you. However, with pronounced symptoms of jaundice, liver damage does not occur with this syndrome.

Treatment is usually carried out for a long time. However, jaundice can be caused by severe and life-threatening diseases, for example, hepatitis. And since the cause of the appearance of bile pigments in excess can be established only by a specialist doctor, then at the first symptoms, be sure to seek help and submit the analysis for the determination of bilirubin. This will allow for accurate diagnosis and prescribe etiopathogenetic treatment.