Correctly rendered first aid in fractures almost 2 times reduces the number of possible complications. In some cases, the provision of first aid in fractures saves a person's life in the truest sense of the word. This applies to open types of bone fractures, in which severe bleeding can occur due to damage to large major blood vessels.
First aid for bone fractures largely depends on the type of injury and its consequences. A preliminary diagnosis of the condition of the victim is necessary.
There are three main types of trauma fractures:
- closed bone structure damage without deformation from the physiological position;
- closed type of injury with displacement of debris and deformation of the anatomical part of the body;
- an open fracture with a rupture of external tissues and the formation of a wound surface that is prone to secondary infection.
A special group of similar injuries includes intraarticular fractures that affect the heads and cervical bones of the upper and lower extremities. These injuries are difficult to diagnose without the use of radiographic equipment.
This material presents the basic rules of first aid for fractures that are localized in different parts of the human body.
First aid for fractures should be cautious.
The main rule that should be followed by a person assisting victims is extreme care and caution. The main principle - do no harm. But to cause harm with trauma to bone tissue can be even with the help of an awkward movement. Therefore, it is necessary to follow certain rules and not to make any attempts to restore the physiological position of human bones or bodies.
first care for fractures should be cautious and not include unnecessary movements, which can be quite dangerous. This is especially true for fractures of the ribs and vertebrae.
First, we present the most characteristic symptoms of bone loss:
- pain syndrome of pronounced intensity;
- change in the apparent configuration of the limb or part of the body due to changes in the anatomical structure of the damaged bone;
- decrease or increase in the length of the injured limb;
- restriction or lack of mobility in that part of the limb that is located below the place of traumatic impact;
- crepitation( creaking or rubbing) when attempting to palpate the site of the injury.
Within 30 - 40 minutes after an injury, swelling of soft tissues grows. Due to violation of the integrity of blood vessels, a large subcutaneous hematoma can form, which looks like a bruise.
First aid for open and closed fracture
First aid with an open and closed type of fracture begins with the immobilization of the damaged part of the body. It is necessary to ensure the complete absence of any mobility. This event is aimed at preventing the displacement of bone fragments. But it also solves other problems: it helps stop bleeding and prevent the development of pain shock.
First aid for an open fracture should include measures aimed at preventing the penetration of secondary infection into the wound surface.
The basic algorithm of actions for first aid in case of open fracture:
- examination of the victim and assessment of his condition;
- give as far as possible an anesthetic for the removal of acute pain syndrome;
- treat the wound surface with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution, 5% with iodine alcohol solution, Miramistin or any other antiseptic;
- dry the wound surface with a sterile gauze wipe;
- open the sterile dressing bag and apply it without tightly fitting the bandage onto the wound surface;
- select suitable items for limb immobilization( for this you can use special tires, straight sticks, boards, plastic solid objects with a flat surface;
- without correcting the position of the limb; tires are applied and bandaged to the leg or arm so that they are tightly fixed;
- the ambulance team is called in.
First aid with a closed fracture is similar, but if there is no wound surface, you can skip the antiseptic treatmentand the application of a sterile bandage
Separately, it is worthwhile to focus on bleeding with open and closed fractures of the bones. In the first case, bleeding can be massive due to damage to large blood vessels by bone fragments. It is necessary to distinguish venous bleeding from the arterial, In the arterial hemorrhage, the blood flows continuously with pulsating streams and has a scarlet saturated color. The tourniquet is superimposed above the bleeding site. With a venous type of bleeding, blood flows slowly, continuously with a trickle and has a dark cherry hue. The tourniquet in this case is superimposed below the bleeding site.
With closed fractures, first aid in stopping bleeding is provided by external means of action. The most accessible of them is ice or another source of cold. Bubble with ice is applied to the affected area. This way you can reduce the size of the intracavitary hematoma and reduce the intensity of pain.
First aid for fractures of the extremities
First aid for fractures of the extremities has a number of distinctive features. First of all, it is worth paying attention to the issues of immobilization of the affected anatomical part of the body. Special buses are used for these purposes.
They can be divided into the following types:
- flat wooden for the immobilization of simple fractures;
- wire with a transformable surface for immobilization of combined traumatic lesions;
- pneumatic and vacuum, which allow you to quickly prepare the patient for transportation.
The width of this element can be from 60 to 120 mm with the length of a standard tire from 60 cm to 1 meter. As a rule, each ambulance team has similar designs. In the domestic environment, it is possible to manufacture an immobilization tire from an improvised material. Most often used ski poles and skis themselves, straight boards, plastic parts and much more.
When applying a tire, a simple rule should be observed: fixation must be achieved in two adjacent joints that are located above and below the damaged bone. In particular, if we consider a fracture of the tibia, the tire should be fixed in the foot and ankle and thigh with the knee joint. Before the measures for immobilization of a limb damaged by a fracture are started, general anesthesia should be carried out, since pain under this manipulation can lead to the development of a pain shock in the victim. For this, you can use both tableted and injectable drugs: Ketorolac, Baralgin, Diclofenac, Orthofen, Analgin.
Another important rule of first aid for fractures of limbs - you can not remove clothing from the victim. The tire is put on top of jackets, trousers, shirts and other items of the wardrobe. If it is necessary to treat the wound surface from the clothing fabric, the necessary pieces are cut out, but completely the sleeves and the trousers are not removed. This can aggravate the displacement of the splinter bones and provoke severe bleeding and the development of pain shock.
First aid for fracture of the spine
Detachments and dislocations of the vertebrae are the most dangerous and serious injury, in which a person can remain for the rest of his life disabled, chained to a chair. Therefore, first aid for fracture of the spine should be given with the utmost care and with the strict observance of all the rules described below.
Usually vertebral fractures occur as a result of a fall from a height and unsuccessful landing, side and front impacts of great force, car accidents and many other cases. They are subdivided into comminuted, compression and simple fractures. Characteristic symptoms - a sharp pain in the place of injury, displacement of the vertebra, fast numbness of that part of the body that is innervated by a damaged pair of nerve roots. With total fracture of the spine with bone marrow separation, complete paralysis of the part of the body located below the injury site can be observed. In severe spinal cord injuries, reflex spontaneous emptying of the intestine and bladder is observed.
The only measure of first aid for a fracture of the spine is to immobilize the patient in a position in which there is no further displacement of the damaged structural parts of the vertebrae. To do this, carefully place the victim on a hard, level surface on his back. Under the cervical spine( if it is not damaged) and the knees are placed rollers of elastic material. In this position, the patient's body is fixed and transported to the traumatology department. In case of damage to the cervical vertebrae, an improvised cushion should be used around the entire neck. It should not squeeze the airways and the cerebral arteries. In case of such injuries, the patient should not be allowed to move to the vertical position, as this can lead to a hemorrhage in the dorsal and brain, and their dislocation.
First aid for fracture of arm, shoulder, collarbone and finger
First aid for a fracture of the hand begins with the definition of the site of traumatic impact and evaluation of the state of soft tissues and bone structure. The most common fracture of the ray in a typical place. Diagnosed by the lack of mobility in the fingers of the hand of the affected hand. The tire or a tight bandage is imposed and the patient goes independently to the traumatologist.
Likewise, first aid is provided for a fractured finger. Symptoms of this trauma are usually expressed in a strong swelling with a rapid build-up of the hematoma. Movement is limited or absent. The patient experiences severe pain. The bus is not superimposed. Used a tight bandage and cold.
First aid for shoulder fracture may require intervention from an ambulance. It is not recommended to transport such a person by myself, since it is very difficult to firmly immobilize the damaged bones in this part of the body. Doctors do this with the help of a special tire Cramer. It is imposed from the middle of the back through the shoulder joint and descends to the carpal joint of the upper limb. At all points of fastening is fixed with a bandage.
First aid for fracture of the clavicle should be given taking into account the possibility of a combined injury. Usually during a fracture, a joint breaks between the clavicle and the acromial process. Such injuries are not uncommon in children, who often fall and lean on their hands. In adults, fracture of the clavicle can occur when a direct blow is made to this anatomical part of the body. The distinctive characteristic of these types of injuries is clarity, since there is no subcutaneous fat layer and muscles above the clavicle. Fracture is visible not with an armed gaze.
First aid for a fractured clavicle is to form a bandage that is attached to the neck. It should have a wide surface on which the hand will be fixed in a bent position.
First aid for a leg fracture: pelvis, shin and foot
First aid for a leg fracture is in accordance with the standards that apply to injuries of various anatomical parts. In particular, first aid for a fracture of the shin is to superimpose the tire with fixation of the ankle and knee joint. In the presence of a wound surface, antiseptic treatment and application of a sterile dressing is performed.
The first help in fracturing the foot is also to fix this part of the leg with a tire. It is necessary to immobilize the toes and ankle.
The most difficult first aid for a pelvic fracture, which is very difficult for a person without medical education to diagnose. However, there is one characteristic feature. The injured person lies on his back, in a pose with divorced to the side, and knees bent at the knees. It is this position that ensures the absence of pain reduction of pain syndrome.
First aid for a pelvic fracture does not involve the use of fixation tires. An emergency transportation of the patient on rigid stretchers is necessary. The patient is moved in the supine position, on the back, with the legs apart. For fixing, you can use dense elastic rollers made of rolled up things or foam rubber. To ensure the lack of mobility of the body, it is possible to use circular elastic bandages in the pelvic region.