In medicine, nosebleeds are called "epistaxis".This phenomenon is a spontaneous discharge of blood, which, as a rule, occurs unexpectedly. Before talking about why the nose can bleed, it should be said about the types of bleeding:
- Primary, associated with local processes.
- Symptomatic, due to common causes. These include hemostasis disorders( acquired or congenital) and systemic diseases.
- Hemorrhages( latent and obvious) from the posterior nasal regions, in which blood flows down the back wall and is swallowed, sometimes it can be aspirated. Such an epistaxis is most dangerous, but is less common.
Thus, all causes of bleeding from the nasal cavity are divided into general and local.
Local causes of
- The cause of bleeding, which is considered to be the most frequent, is the superficially located vessels in the nasal septum. They are easy to damage with sudden movements of the head, blowhole, etc.
- Foreign body caught in the nasal cavity.
- Surgical intervention.
- Various injuries to the nose.
- Curved nasal septum.
- Benign( polyps of the nasal septum, angiofibromas, hemangiomas) and malignant tumors.
- Mucosal dystrophy due to atrophic rhinitis.
- Pathological development of blood vessels, for example, their hypertrophy.
- Burns of the nasal cavity( electrical, thermal, chemical, radiation).
Common Causes of
What if the vessels in the eyes often burst?
- Infections such as influenza, scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, typhoid and others.
- Septic conditions, anemia.
- Diseases of the hematopoietic system: immune hemopathies, chronic and acute leukemias, diathesis hemorrhagic.
- Diseases of the heart, blood vessels, liver, kidneys.
- Avitaminosis and hypovitaminosis.
- Arterial hypertension, a sharp decrease in pressure.
- Strong cough.
- Overheating, prolonged exposure to the sun.
- Use of anticoagulants.
- Skull base fractures.
- Bloody discharge through the nose with bleeding from internal organs: esophagus, stomach, respiratory tract.
- Disorders of menstruation in girls.
Causes of bleeding in adults
Bleeding also occurs in healthy people, for example, as a result of fatigue, but can also indicate diseases. The reasons for this phenomenon are quite diverse. The main ones are:
- Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, nasal mucosa. These include rhinitis and sinusitis( fronts, sinusitis, etc.), in which mucus is released along with blood. With these diseases, the mucosa weakens, so it is easily traumatized. Usually there is an increase in temperature, as well as a headache.
- Damage to small vessels. This can occur after taking medications from the cold, drying the mucous membrane, by inhaling too dry air. In this case, bleeding, as a rule, is weak and quickly ceases.
- Injury of the nose. Fractures of the facial bones of the skull are often accompanied by bleeding from the nose, with pain, swelling of the face.
- Overheating. Epistaxis can occur with prolonged exposure to the sun. At the same time there is a noise in the ears, nausea, general weakness, headache.
- Medication administration. As a rule, bleeding causes drugs aimed at preventing blood clotting. These include heparin, aspirin and others. Blood from the nose can flow with prolonged and uncontrolled application of nasal sprays, drying the mucous membrane.
- Another reason for epistaxis is the hypertensive crisis. With a significant increase in blood pressure, rupture of the vessels of the mucosa is possible. To stop the blood, you need to lower the pressure.
- . Oncological diseases. Epistaxis occurs in malignant and benign neoplasm in the nose. In addition to bleeding, there may be a sore on the nasal mucosa, a swelling of the nose, a change in its shape.
- Blood diseases, such as leukemia, thrombocytopenic purpura, anemia. With these pathologies, uterine bleeding, bleeding gums, and a tendency to form bruises( bruises) are observed.
Mechanical effects can lead to nasal bleeding in children
Causes of bleeding in children
In children, single nosebleeds are usually associated with physical or emotional stress. If a young child has a nosebleed, it is necessary to examine it. The most common causes of epistaxis are as follows:
- Irritation of the mucosa due to mechanical influences( picking one's finger in the nose).
- Dryness of the mucosa and, as a result, ruptures of small vessels. Typically, this is due to the low humidity in the room.
- Foreign body, caught in the child's nose - peas, small items, parts of toys and stuff.
- Nose trauma is a common cause of bleeding in children.
- Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses and mucous membrane. Diseases of the blood, for example hemophilia. As a rule, in this case there are other signs of bleeding, for example bruises.
Bleeding from the nose also occur during pregnancy, which is associated with the following factors:
- Elevated blood pressure. In this case, in addition to epistaxis, there is headache, confusion, nausea.
- If there is a shortage of vitamin K and calcium in the body, hypovitaminosis may develop. In this case, bleeding gums is usually observed.