There is a cardiac sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach. Its task is to prevent the food from returning from the stomach again into the esophagus. If it does not function well enough, not only partially digested food can enter the esophagus, but with it bile and gastric juice. All this provokes gastroesophageal reflux disease.
This disease manifests itself in insufficient closure of the sphincter. As a result, the contents of the stomach can not remain inside the cavity of the body. Lack of the right tone in this area leads to gastroesophageal reflux disease. The ingestion of gastric juice into the esophagus provokes the development of damage to the esophageal mucosa, ulcers may appear at the opening leading to the stomach. All this leads to precancerous conditions( metaplasia by intestinal type or Barrett's esophagus).
- 1 Causes of development of the disease
- 2 Signs of the development of the disease
- 3 Treatment and prevention
Causes of the development of the disease
Cardia deficiency can appear due to a variety of factors:
- malnutrition, overeating;
- stomach diseases, in particular, gastritis, ulcer, tumors, hypertension of the stomach muscles);
- eating before bed;
- low mobility;
- hiatal hernia;
- pylorus spasm;
- increase in intra-abdominal pressure, which appears during pregnancy, ascites;
- increased pressure in the stomach;
- operations, accompanied by resection of the sphincter.
Intra-abdominal pressure can develop due to heavy physical labor, heavy loads. From overwork, hernias of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm appear. This, too, can provoke a failure of the cardia.
Signs of the development of the disease
The level of development of the pathology is diagnosed by the endoscopic method. There are several degrees of the disease.
- First degree. Movable cardia is not fully closed. In this case, the open gap should not be more than 1/3 of the total diameter during deep breathing. Among the external manifestations are frequent burping of air.
- Second degree. The cardiac sphincter closes only by half. Ziyan can be even slightly exceeding. Belching becomes painful and very frequent. Sometimes prolapse of the gastric mucosa develops.
- Third degree. The cardiac sphincter does not close at all. There are signs of esophagitis.
- heartburn, appearing at different periods regarding food intake;
- burning pain that spreads behind the sternum, where the esophagus passes;
- frequent belching of the air, and also that which is in the stomach( if the belch is acidic, it means that it contains only the contents of the stomach, if there is a bitter taste, then bile was added);
- nausea, which often results in vomiting;
- esophagitis, which appears due to irritation of the mucosa, gives pain in the abdomen, a gurgling in the intestine;
- weakness, dizziness, fatigue.
Treatment and prevention
Treatment can go in several directions. First of all, it is necessary to treat the underlying disease, which led to a lack of cardia. It is advisable to follow a diet, to engage in weight loss with obesity. If the cause was ascites, you should try to reduce intra-abdominal pressure.
Inadequacy of the cardiac sphincter at the first stage requires a properly organized diet. Take food regularly, several times a day. One serving by volume should be small. To eat it is necessary under the schedule, time of reception of food from day to day should coincide. After eating it is forbidden to lie for two hours. Walk and sit is allowed.
The diet is preferably made from soups, semi-liquid cereals, homogenized products. In order not to irritate the mucosa of the esophagus, all foods that can thermally or chemically aggressively affect the esophagus are excluded from food. Rude food is also not taken to mechanically not damage the inflamed mucosa.
Cold and hot are completely banned. Before eating, drink plain water. Then you should try to nourish the nutrition of vegetables and fruits. Prohibited chocolate, you can not drink alcohol, eat fried, fatty, pickled, salted, smoked. Seasonings are also excluded.
- tight, tight clothes are not worn;
- belts and belts do not tighten;
- should be bent less often;
- physical activities limit;
- sleep in an elevated position( so that the head and upper half of the trunk are higher in level than the lower part);
- if the work is physically heavy, chemically dangerous, implies slopes, it needs to be changed.
The motor activity of the lower esophageal sphincter is regulated by medication. High efficiency in the correction of this condition is indicated by domperidone, metoclopramide. Preparations with active ingredient metoclopramide:
These drugs are taken three times a day. The dose is 10 mg. In severe cases, take four times a day. If the drug is administered intramuscularly, take a dose of 2 ml. Intravenously injected also 2 ml, do it 2 times a day.
Domperidone has its own application features. The standard dose is 0, 01 g. The frequency is three times a day. Take it to food, if the condition is heavy, the dose is doubled.
Propulsid( cisapride) is a drug used to regulate gastroesophageal reflux. The dose of the drug is from 5 mg to 10 mg. Take it twice or thrice a day. There is a form of candles, which is also relevant for the treatment of cardia deficiency. In this case, a dose of 30 mg per day is needed. It can be combined with other methods, methods of treatment. You can only take this tool.
Treatment should be started on time. This disease is very insidious. In the body there are serious consequences, expressed in peptic ulcers, gastroesophageal bleeding.
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