The thyroid gland located on the front surface of the neck and controlled by the pituitary gland, performs an important function in the human body for the production of hormones of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, without which a normal metabolic process is impossible. The main cause of the development of diseases of this gland is a lack or, on the contrary, an excessive amount of some elements in the body. Treatment of all diseases of the thyroid gland is handled by an endocrinologist. The most frequent diagnosis of his patients are: hypothyroidism, diffuse toxic goiter, thyroid nodes, less common: thyroiditis, adenoma, malignant tumor.
- 1 Hypothyroidism
- 2 Thyrotoxicosis
- 3 Thyroid nodes
- 4 Thyroiditis
- 5 Thyroid adenoma
- 6 Thyroid malignant
Hypothyroidism is a condition caused by a decrease in the basic function of the thyroid gland, resulting in it producing a deficient amount of hormones for the normal functioning of the body. Most often, this pathology develops in women, occurs chronically and may not be felt for a long period of time. The main symptoms of hypothyroidism are often confused with symptoms of depression. These include: a feeling of fatigue, decreased appetite, muscle and headaches, frequent numbness of the limbs, deterioration of the skin, nails, hair, memory disorder, blurred vision, constant ringing in the ears, swelling of the skin. With a lack of hormones produced by the thyroid gland in the body, a slowdown in metabolic processes is observed, which can not but affect the person's health. The patient, as a rule, pursues a bad mood, it is difficult for him to concentrate and keep his attention on one question. As a result, there is a decrease in efficiency. Laryngeal edema with hypothyroidism leads to the fact that the patient becomes difficult to breathe, he begins to snore during sleep. Slowing down the digestive process leads to frequent constipation. A serious complication of the lack of hormones in the body is a change in the heart rate, which, as a rule, is reduced to 50 beats per minute, a violation of reproductive function. The goal of treating hypothyroidism is to restore the normal functioning of the thyroid gland and compensate for the lack of hormones in the body. The patient is prescribed Levothyroxine, the dose is calculated depending on his age. Sometimes people with insufficient function of the thyroid gland are forced to take hormonal drugs for several years.
Diffuse toxic goiter or thyrotoxicosis is an autoimmune disease, accompanied by excessive production of thyroid hormones, its increase in size and a violation of metabolism in the tissues of the body. The cause of this pathology may be upper respiratory tract infection, frequent stress, damage or surgery in the thyroid, poisoning, long exposure to direct sunlight. Symptomatic diffuse toxic goiter is very diverse, the disease is very slow and is accompanied by a gradual increase in the thyroid gland in size. Against the background of the progression of the disease, the goiter acquires a visible form, grows and can reach enormous dimensions. The main symptoms of thyrotoxicosis: excessive sweating, worsening of sleep, memory loss, muscle pain, irritability, menstruation and lack of ovulation in women, decreased libido, development of eyelashes, more heart rhythms, polyuria, trembling of hands. If you have at least a few symptoms of toxic goiter, you should consult a specialist. A severe form of the disease sometimes leads to the appearance of a life-threatening thyrotoxic crisis, in which excessive release of thyroid hormones into the blood of the patient occurs. The substances released into the blood quickly spread through the body and reach all of its tissues and organs, leading to intoxication. In the absence of all necessary medical measures, this condition ends with the death of the body. Treatment for diffuse-toxic goiter is complex. The patient is shown rest, proper diet, refusal from bad habits. Treatment of severe disease is carried out in a specialized institution, the patient is shown the introduction of thyreostatic drugs, therapy with radioactive iodine. In the presence of goiter large size surgery is performed on the thyroid gland.
Thyroid nodes are small, localized directly in the thyroid gland, in the form of nodules or cysts. This pathology is very common among the world population, but it is not always noticeable to the naked eye. The formation of the thyroid gland sometimes reach microscopic dimensions, in most cases, their availability becomes known at the time of the organ examination for any other disease. Sometimes the thyroid nodules reach a relatively large size, are palpated by palpation and become noticeable. Their formation leads to difficulty breathing and ingestion of food. Very rarely such a node can cause a cancer of the thyroid gland. Treatment of thyroid nodes involves the use of hormonal drugs( levothyroxine) and radioactive iodine. If there is no positive result of treatment, the nodes can be surgically removed.
Thyroiditis is an inflammation of the thyroid gland. The main cause of the disease can be an infection or intoxication of the body. Symptoms of thyroiditis are: increased body temperature, a noticeable thickening of the neck, throbbing pain in the ears, pain during swallowing and turning the head, an increase in local lymph nodes. The disease can occur in acute and chronic form. For its treatment in most cases, antibiotics, pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamins, corticosteroids are prescribed. In the case of development of purulent thyroiditis, surgical treatment is indicated.
Thyroid adenoma is a tumor( benign) localized directly in the gland itself and having the shape of an oval or a circle. In the process of enlarging the neoplasm, neighboring organs are usually compressed, with difficulty in breathing, swallowing, and the like. The main characteristic feature of the thyroid adenoma is the appearance inside it of a smooth, having sharp edges of formation. Such education, as a rule, is painless and easily palpated. In some cases, there is a multiple adenoma. The disease is accompanied by the appearance of such symptoms: increased sweating, irritability, weight loss, fatigue. Against the backdrop of the development of the tumor, there may be irregularities in the digestive system, an increase in blood pressure and body temperature. Adenoma of the thyroid gland should be differentiated from cancer, in which it has a property to regenerate with time. The main diagnostic methods are: ultrasound and biopsy. Treatment of any kind of tumors is performed surgically, that is, implies their complete removal. Usually the formation of thyroid tumors is accompanied by an increase in its function, which leads to a severe form of thyrotoxicosis. In the postoperative period, patients are shown drugs whose action is aimed at restoring the normal functioning of the gland. Depending on the patient's condition, hormone replacement therapy is prescribed, or, on the contrary, hormone-suppressing therapy. With the timely detection of the disease, the prognosis of his treatment is favorable.
Malignant thyroid gland
Malignant thyroid gland is very rare, the cause of its development can be radiation exposure, lack of iodine in the body, the presence of adenoma or thyroid nodes. Cancer of the thyroid gland may not manifest itself for several months at the same time, at the same time progress, which is very unfavorable for human health and life. Over time, the patient has shortness of breath, frequent heart rhythms, weakness of the body. The only method of treating a malignant tumor in this case is partial or complete excision of the organ in combination with radiation and chemotherapy. The prognosis is favorable only in case of detection of a tumor at the first stage of its development.