Tick-borne encephalitis and its prevention are the most important topics in the spring and summer periods for those who like active outdoor recreation. However, recently bites of ixodid ticks are noted in large numbers and in the centers of large cities. These bloodsucking insects feel great in the greenery, city parks, squares and alleys.
A small and seemingly harmless tick can cause a dangerous disease - tick-borne viral encephalitis. This infectious disease is manifested by fever, intoxication and damage to the central nervous system.
How to protect yourself from this ailment? What if the infection occurs? What are the ways of treatment?
Encephalitis and tick
Carry out encephalitis of dog mite in Europe and taiga mite in Siberia and the Far East. An infected tick keeps the virus for life.
Infection quickly dies when heated, the action of ultraviolet radiation. Can long remain active in unprocessed milk. It is believed that the disease caused by the Far Eastern subtype of the virus is more severe.
Tick-borne encephalitis disease
It is possible to infect and crush the tick on the skin - through small skin lesions and micro-traumas the virus will quickly enter the bloodstream.
It is possible to pick up the ailment and with the use of unboiled goat or sheep's milk, since goats and sheep infects the mite very often. In this case, family outbreaks of the disease may occur.
Symptoms and Symptoms of Tick-borne Encephalitis
There is usually no change in the site of suction of the tick. The incubation( latent) period lasts from 2 to 21 days. Signs of encephalitis appear after this time.
When the virus enters the blood, there are signs of encephalitis resembling the flu: fatigue, fatigue, weakness, decreased appetite, may be an aching in the bones, a fever. This is the so-called febrile form of the disease. It is believed that it flows quite easily, without leaving consequences.
The brain enters the brain through the blood-brain barrier. If this occurs, neurologic symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis are added to the fever.
Disease tick-borne encephalitis of the brain
Tick-borne encephalitis disease affects the brain cells. The severity of the defeat of the nervous system determines the manifestations and prognosis of the disease. If the cerebral membranes are inflamed, the tick-borne encephalitis proceeds in the meningeal form. In this case, feverish manifestations are joined by a sharp headache, photophobia, and tension of the occipital muscles. It is believed that this form can also proceed without consequences.
Tick-borne encephalitis: consequences and complications
When brain cells are damaged, focal forms of cerebral encephalitis develop. They are the most dangerous, since they can leave severe complications of tick-borne encephalitis or lead to death. Subsequently, it is possible to impair motor functions, memory disorders, often people become disabled. Complications of tick-borne encephalitis can lead to disability.
Treatment of tick-borne encephalitis is carried out only in the hospital, usually in the intensive care unit. Timely referral to a hospital can improve the prognosis of the disease!
Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis
The most reliable protection measure is vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis, in other words, vaccination. Obligatory vaccination is subject to people working in the risk centers for encephalitis: geologists, foresters, hunters and so on.
Vaccinations can be carried out both by planned and by an emergency schedule. To form immunity by the start of the season, the first dose of the vaccine is administered in the fall, the second winter.
Emergency vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis
An emergency vaccination schedule for tick-borne encephalitis( two injections with an interval of two weeks) is performed if a person has come to the hearth, the spread of tick-borne encephalitis suddenly.
A dangerous period - spring and summer. In other seasons, emergency prevention of encephalitis is not carried out. After a year, the vaccinated are vaccinated again.
If a person is not vaccinated, but the tick still bites him, then prophylactically he is given a dose of immunoglobulin. Therefore, when sucking the tick, you should always contact the medical staff!
However, it is better to avoid the habitat of ticks without special need, especially in May-June. And if you are going to the forest, then walk the beaten paths, not climbing into the thicket. Wear clothes with long sleeves. Pants trousers in socks, wear high boots. Do not neglect the headdress.
To make the ticks easier to spot, light clothing is the best fit. Upon returning from the forest clothes and body must be examined.
You can remove the tick with a manicure tweezers or thread, tying it around the head of the parasite. The tick is removed swaying - twisting movements. It is important not to crush the tick. Sometimes unscrew an insect helps the vegetable oil, drip a couple of drops to the suction site.
The wound can be treated with any disinfectant solution( iodine, zelenok, alcohol).Mites after removal should be taken to a medical institution for analysis.
After a tick bite infected with the encephalitis virus, it is necessary to conduct emergency prophylaxis within 3 days. Introduce anti-malignant immunoglobulin in a dose of 1 ml per 10 kg of body weight or take iodantipyrine according to the appropriate scheme. Complications of encephalitis are so dangerous that it is better to insure themselves in advance.
And here it is not only late to vaccinate against tick-borne encephalitis after a tick bite, but it is contraindicated. If a person has already received a virus that is in the incubation period, he is still adding a virus( although this is a dead vaccine), there may be complications. Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis is necessary before the tick activity season. Previously, tick-borne encephalitis was mainly spread in the Far East and Siberia, but now in the European part of Russia. Here, people are at risk, because before this disease was not, and, consequently, the immunity was not developed. The consequences of encephalitis in this case may be unpredictable.
Measures for the prevention of tick-borne encephalitis
The absence of antibodies several days after the prophylactic introduction of anti-malignant immunoglobulin, in the case of a properly conducted laboratory examination, speaks, first of all, of an inadequate dose of immunoglobulin. The dose is calculated as follows: 1 ml per 10 kg of body weight. A slender skinny woman and a large man require a completely different dose. There are other emergency measures to prevent tick-borne encephalitis.
Take iodantipyrine or another drug, the use of which is possible for emergency prophylaxis against tick-borne encephalitis, 7 days after the bite late. The deadline is 5 days.
The most effective protection against encephalitis is vaccination, of course, carried out in advance.
In April-May, the peak of the number of ticks begins. Mites can not fly, but they can climb the bushes, high grass, and also successfully plan with a gust of wind, focusing on the smell of a person they feel for 10-15 meters. Therefore, along the paths of ticks, there is always more than in the depths of a forest or park.
When going to the forest, it is advisable to put on a shirt with closely fitting cuffs, which is tucked into trousers, and trousers into socks, and a kerchief is tightly tied on the head.
The tick activity season is May - September, but much depends on the weather conditions. It happens that mites become active from April.
Vaccination consists of three injections, the course is designed for a year, but after the first two injections it can be calculated that the body has developed a sufficient level of antibodies.
The interval between the first and second injections should be at least a month( from a month to five), so you need to start vaccination in February-March. The third inoculation should be done one year after the first, that is, in the next February or March. Revaccination is carried out with a single vaccination every 3 years.
It should be noted that vaccination against encephalitis is not included in the National Calendar of preventive vaccinations, therefore you will have to take care of yourself.
If you dress properly, then the skin does not reach the skin.
Mites can be attached only in certain places. He is looking for a thin skin( behind the ears, under the chest, at the neck, at the elbow bend, at the groin, at the waist).Its bite is similar to the eye - in the center there is a dark spot, followed by a white circle and rashes at the edges.
Do not forget : after leaving the forest, you need to carefully inspect yourself and your clothes. Tick can also be brought home with a bouquet of flowers, mushrooms, in the wool of dogs.