Intestinal flu refers to typically "childhood" infections, which the adult is already infected from the child. The causative agent of the disease may be a number of representatives of different families of viruses( rotaviruses, noroviruses, etc.).A characteristic feature of this group of diseases is the primary lesion of the intestinal mucosa, where the name "intestinal flu" came from.
Develops, as a rule, in the autumn-winter period, in parallel with seasonal ARVI and influenza in preschool and school groups. Children most often suffer from six months to 4 years, later - most of the children of primary school age( and older) have already formed immunity to this group of pathogens.
If a child after 6 years is periodically ill with intestinal flu, this indicates a pronounced immune deficiency and requires consultation of a children's immunologist.
- 1 Pathways of infection
- 2 Symptoms of intestinal flu in children
- 3 Portrait of disease
- 4 Intestinal flu in children
- 5 Video about intestinal flu( rotavirus infection)
Pathways of infection
- Airborne droplet transmission pathway. Often, intestinal flu is accompanied by a clinic of usual respiratory-viral disease - children sneeze, cough and infect each other. In addition, in some patients, intestinal symptoms predominate, while in others - respiratory with an identical pathogen;
- Fecal-oral route( dirty hands). This is what makes intestinal influenza a child infection, because at an older age this type of transmission is much less common;
- Direct contact of biological fluids( eg with nosebleeds).
The viruses of this group are very resistant to unfavorable environmental factors. In feces the pathogen can live up to six months, and on the surface of the living environment - more than a week. In addition, many people( one in three) are constant virus carriers of various strains of intestinal viruses( asymptomatic carriage).For this reason, the probability of infecting small children with intestinal flu is extremely high, especially in the autumn-winter period.
Symptoms of intestinal flu in children
- Develops approximately one day after exposure to enterovirus;
- Temperature rises to subfebrile values (37-39 ° C);
- Diarrhea. The number of entrances is up to 15 within 24 hours. Cal light, watery. Desires for defecation are imperative, the child may not have time to ask;
Sometimes blood is visible in the feces. This may be due to an infected bacterial infection or an initially incorrect diagnosis. The child is subject to immediate hospitalization in this case.
- Vomiting. Sometimes it does not always( depending on the specific situation), up to 4 times a day;
- Quite often the stomach gurgles, growls;
- The stomach may ache, the baby cries. On examination, painful sensations are concentrated in the peripodal region( projection of the small intestine).
- If the fluid loss is not adequately compensated, there are signs of dehydration and intoxication.
As a rule, the acute period of intestinal flu lasts 3-6 days, after which the stool and other manifestations of the disease are normalized.
If the disease is acute, then in some cases the child may find himself in an infectious disease hospital, where emergency fluid loss is replenished, detoxification is performed and diagnostics are performed. With intestinal flu in the feces of the child, enterovirus is isolated, which makes it possible to distinguish the pathological process from the most dangerous bacterial infections that proceed in this way.
Portrait of the disease
- Seasonality. Bacterial infections prefer summer, and intestinal flu - winter;
- Age of the child from 6 months to 4 years;
- Characteristic type of feces, as well as the absence of a bacteria-specific odor;
- A sharp, "viral" onset of the disease( the clinic of bacterial infection is gradually increasing);
- The presence of the virus in the stool.
This makes it possible to distinguish the process from dysentery, cholera, salmonellosis and other dangerous diseases.
Therapy of intestinal flu in children
There is nothing to influence the virus itself. The available antiviral drugs are either not shown to children under 3 years of age, or do not act on this group of pathogens. A relative exception is the childish form of arbidol, however, in the absence of a liquid form of substance, it is not quite convenient to give it to small children.
Therefore, treatment of children is symptomatic:
- Prevention of dehydration. It is desirable to slightly add some water, or use special salt solutions( sold in pharmacies).If the time does not compensate for fluid loss, it can lead to the development of renal failure and circulatory disorders;
- Control of intoxication. Used as ordinary activated carbon, and more complex sorbents: polysorbent, smect, polipepam, polysorb, enterol, lactofiltrum, etc.;
- Decrease in the temperature of admissible preparations for children of the NSAID group;
- Vitaminotherapy and drugs that increase overall immunity;
- Bed rest all acute period of the disease( 3-7 days);
- With severe pain in the abdomen, you can give spasmolytics( no-shpa).
In addition - the child is assigned a special diet: products that enhance gas formation( beans, meat, cabbage, carbonated drinks, etc.) are excluded. The best products for this period are: oatmeal, jelly, boiled vegetables.
Intestinal flu is always accompanied by a strong dysbacteriosis. To compensate for this dangerous condition, it is desirable to use probiotics( linex, rotabiotic, lactile, etc.).Restoration of normal microflora compensates for reduced immunity, promotes the production of endogenous vitamins, helps to break down food( including milk), reduces intoxication, allows displacing pathogenic microorganisms.
For the same purpose it is possible to give the child low-fat homemade yogurts based on bifidobacteria.
If intestinal flu affects a child on natural feeding - do not interrupt it. Milk of the mother contains a lot of biologically active substances that help the child to cope with the virus infection more quickly. In addition, the child should drink a lot, and the milk compensates not only for the loss of water, but also the deficit of proteins and minerals. Mothers need to eat intensively during this period to compensate for increased energy losses, salt and vitamins.
Prognosis of the disease in children with timely treatment is favorable. The quarantine period is two weeks. This requires double wet cleaning in the room, ventilation and daily replacement of clothing and bed linen. The principles of disinfection, necessary for home maintenance of the patient, must be consulted by the doctor in charge.
Having been diagnosed with intestinal flu, the child is likely to avoid subsequent episodes of the disease, but to explain to him the necessity of observing the elementary rules of hygiene is worthwhile, since the moment is suitable for this.
Video about intestinal influenza( rotavirus infection)
http: //www.youtube.com/ watch? V = hzXd-czS_Is