Diseases of the cervix: symptoms, treatment of cervical disease

The uterus is the main organ of the female reproductive system. His diseases in most cases lead to the impossibility of conceiving and bearing healthy offspring, which is unacceptable for most of the fairer sex. Any woman should know the main diseases of the uterus and be able to pay attention to their symptoms, if she wants to live a long and happy life. Most reproductive system diseases in women affect the cervix - the lower part of this organ, which is, as it were, its continuation. Most often gynecologists diagnose: endometriosis, fibroids, leukoplakia, erosion of the cervix, cyst, dysplasia of the cervix.


  • 1 Endometriosis
  • 2 Myoma of the uterus
  • 3 Leukoplakia
  • 4 Cervical erosion
  • 5 Cervical cyst
  • 6 Cervical dysplasia


Endometriosis is a disease in which the epithelial cells of the uterus are found in other organs of the female reproductive system. This process can cover the fallopian tubes, ovaries, the vagina, in some cases - the bladder. Endometriosis is most common in women of childbearing age, the exact causes of it remain unclear for today. It is known that the disease can be inherited. The main signs of it are: frequent causeless bleeding from the vagina, the appearance of minor masticious discharge before and after menstruation, pain in the lower abdomen at the time of sexual intercourse. Depending on the organs in which foreign cells are found, constipation may occur, frequent urge to go to the toilet, upset of the stool.

Treatment is given according to the age of the woman, her desire or unwillingness to have children, manifestations of the main symptoms of the disease. In most cases, hormonal drugs are prescribed that slow the growth of tissues. It is not necessary to refuse treatment of endometriosis, because it is one of the main causes of infertility.

Myoma of the uterus

Myoma of the uterus is a benign growth of the connective and muscular tissues of the uterus. Depending on the location and shape of the neoplasm, distinguish: nodular fibroids( proliferation in the form of several nodules), submucous( located under the mucous membrane), subserous( developing over the uterus, in the abdominal cavity).The presence of fibroids directly on the cervix is ​​noted infrequently, in only 20% of all cases of the disease. You should know that this pathology occurs in women who have reached 35-40 years. At the time of onset of menopause, it is possible to independently dissolve it. Usually, the myoma is not manifested, it can be detected during a medical examination by a gynecologist and often becomes a reason for contacting a women's consultation about the impossibility of conceiving a child. Sometimes the disease makes itself felt by rare pains in the lower abdomen, profuse menstruation, and uterine bleeding in the middle of the cycle.

The main goal of myoma treatment is to stop the growth of the tumor. In those cases when it reaches insignificant sizes, hormone therapy( zoladex, gestrinone, tryptorelin) is carried out. Rapid progression of the disease, compression of neighboring organs requires surgical removal of myoma. Depending on the indications, a complete removal of the organ( which is unacceptable for nulliparous women) or excision of a part of it can be performed.


Leukoplakia is a disease associated with keratinization of the cells of the cervical mucosa arising in the form of a gradually growing white spot. At the onset of the disease, a small, slightly rising epithelium overgrowth appears in the base of the cervix, in the form of a plaque or spot. Its contours can be even or blurry. Perhaps the formation of several such spots at once. Most often leukoplakia is asymptomatic and does not pose a threat to the health and life of a woman.

This pathology does not belong to a number of dangerous diseases, but it should be disposed of, as well as from any neoplasms. Only in some cases it can be a sign of dysplasia. To establish the exact cause of the appearance of white spots in the cervical region, they are biopsy and further study of the resulting material in the laboratory.

The removal of leukoplakia can be carried out in several ways: cryotherapy( freezing), chemical or laser coagulation, diathermocoagulation. After a successful procedure, a woman can live a full sexual life and give birth to healthy children.

Erosion of the cervix

Erosion - benign changes in the surface of the mucous membrane of the cervix. This pathology is congenital in some cases. In this case, it is completely safe for health and passes by itself at the time of the onset of sexual activity or after the birth of the child. The real problem is erosion, which appeared in a woman who reached childbearing age. The cause of its occurrence is most often a violation of the hormonal background of the body, as well as mechanical damage to the mucosa at the time of surgery. The main symptoms of cervical erosion are: smearing spotting from the vagina, occurring immediately after intercourse, drawing to the bottom of abdominal pain, pain during sexual intercourse, irregular menstruation, profuse vaginal discharge.

The choice of how to treat the disease depends on how many years the patient is and whether she plans future pregnancies. Young, nulliparous women are prescribed, as a rule, a chemical coagulation procedure. It is possible to remove erosion by means of contactless radio wave surgery. In women who have reached the climax period, erosion treatment can be performed using diathermocoagulation( the procedure itself is very painful), a laser or liquid nitrogen. The time for complete healing of erosion depends on the chosen method of treatment.

Cervical cyst

The cervix cyst is a very common pathology of the reproductive organs of women giving birth and is a benign neoplasm that occurs against the background of inflammation or hormonal failures of the body. In some cases, the formation of several cysts is possible. The main symptoms of this disease, as a rule, does not exist and is detected during gynecological examination with the use of a colposcope. Cyst is a small dense formation of yellow or white. Its size does not exceed 3-4 millimeters.

Some specialists in the field of gynecology believe that this disease does not pose a threat from its transformation into a malignant tumor, and if it is not accompanied by any unpleasant symptoms for a woman, it is not necessary to delete it. If necessary, removal of the cyst is carried out in different ways. It can be her puncture, cryodestruction or exposure to the laser. These methods are safe for women's health, after the procedure on the mucous membrane of the cervix there are no traces of such interventions. Removing the cyst does not prevent the possibility of having children in the future.

Cervical dysplasia

Cervical dysplasia is considered a precancerous condition and manifests itself as atypical changes in the epithelium lining the surface of this organ. At the initial stage of its development, the disease is completely curable and does not pose a threat to the life of a woman. Most often it develops on the background of unhealthy lifestyle, early sexual life, contraceptive use, uterine trauma, etc. Dysplasia itself does not have any pronounced signs of manifestation, but often the accompanying inflammatory diseases make itself felt by the presence of itching in the vagina, pain during intercourse, atypical vaginal discharge, sometimes with blood impurities, pulling pains in the lower abdomen. Often, this pathology occurs in conjunction with sexual infections - chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis.

Cervical dysplasia involves a conservative or radical method of treatment. The choice of method depends on the age of the patient, the presence of her pregnancies, the general state of her health and the size of the pathology itself. In most cases, immunomodulating drugs are administered in combination with removal of the affected area of ​​the organ. Its removal can be carried out using a laser, liquid nitrogen or low-frequency current. In the case of severe dysplasia( non-invasive cancer), excision of the affected tissue with a scalpel of the surgeon is indicated. In case of complications, as well as in case of relapses of the disease, the uterus is completely removed. The prognosis for the patient's life is favorable.