Myocardial infarction is accompanied by sudden abrupt changes in the work of the heart muscle and coronary vessels. An urgent adaptation to the loss of the site of the ventricular tissue is required. He does not just stop his functions, but turns into a necrotic mass that releases the products of decay into the blood.
For the patient there is a period of replacement necrosis for scar tissue, development of collateral vessels, elimination of the ischemic zone. The diet for myocardial infarction is designed to help drugs solve these problems.
Basic nutrition requirements for the infarcted patient
It is possible to ease the heart rate only by observing bed rest. But a person must receive energy from food. How can we ensure that nutrition in case of myocardial infarction does not load affected muscular tissue, but contribute to its recovery? To this end, there are a number of requirements:
- can not take abundant meat and fried foods, it will require a lot of energy costs for assimilation;
- food should be light, but high in calories;
- the number of meals should be increased to 6 - 7, and portions reduced;
- is contraindicated in products leading to bloating, as lifting the diaphragm makes it difficult for the heart to contract;
- in the diet should be enough protein( building material);
- needs potassium and magnesium salts, they improve the electrical activity of myocardial cells;
- table salt is limited to 3 - 5 g, the total content in the food is consistent with the doctor, because it depends on possible complications;
- total calorie content can be reduced to 1500 kcal by limiting fatty foods, sugar, flour and confectionery products;
- the volume of liquid is reduced to 0.5 l;
- the patient does not need extra caffeine, contained in strong coffee, tea, carbonated drinks;
- stool retention in the first days plays a positive role( the tension of the peritoneum muscles during straining causes an increase in the load on the fragile myocardium), but in the future it is necessary to provide that the diet after myocardial infarction included products with laxative effect.
When buying kefir, it is necessary to check the date of manufacture: only a daily drink has a laxative effect.
. Diet of the first week of the disease.
. The acute period determines the compensatory possibilities of the organism, it is dangerous for the development of complications. Therefore, nutrition should be given special attention.
- low-fat meat broths with white rusks;
- boiled fish;
- boiled meat in a grated form( soufflé, casserole);
- porridge on the water( better buckwheat);
- cottage cheese, low-fat kefir;
- salad from boiled beet, sea kale;
- broth of dogrose, prunes;
- compote of raisins, dried apricots;
- boiled potatoes;Citrus fruit.
Food is not salted. Sugar and sweets are limited.
- animal fats( lard, butter, fatty meat), sausages and smoked products;
- black bread and fresh pastries;
- grapes and juice from it;
- carbonated drinks.
The total caloric content of the daily ration is 1300 kcal, the mass is up to 1500 AD.
The diet of the second and third week of
. The limitations are somewhat weakened:
- is allowed salt, but not more than 3 g( half teaspoon)a day, the food is prepared without salt, the addition is possible with food;
- porridge is not prepared, not crumbly, in casseroles;
- shows grated raw carrots;
- soups with vegetables from low-fat meat;
- is limited to sour cream, hard cheese;
- sugar not more than 50 g;
- tomato juice;
- sauces prepared on vegetable broth;
- not strong tea with lemon;
- 10 g of butter.
Caloric content increases up to 1800 kcal, weight ration - up to 2000.
Diet of the recovery period
Nutrition after myocardial infarction from the fourth week at home is equated to the treatment table number 10.This is an ordinary diet for patients with heart disease( without decompensation or with it), hypertensive disease.
Even embedding of lettuce leaves does not improve the dangerous properties of various hot dogs from fast food establishments
- Very strictly controlled animal fats. The purpose of the diet is to reduce the blood levels of low-density lipoproteins and to prevent the development of atherosclerosis. Therefore, it is recommended to replace fats with vegetable oils, vegetable sauces.
- No spicy seasonings, pickles and marinades are allowed, as these products contain salt and will require additional consumption of liquid. And the salt remains limited, its amount should be agreed with the attending physician.
- Meat products are recommended in the form of cutlets, meatballs, meatballs, chicken ham is allowed. Dishes from lamb, fat pork, shish kebabs, fried products are inadmissible.
- Recommended sea fish, soups from it, stewed with vegetables. Preferred dishes are steamed. Casseroles with cottage cheese, pasta( limited for excess weight), porridge on milk in unprotected form are allowed. Apples and other fruits are introduced into the menu gradually.
- Caloric content increases up to 2300 kcal, the weight of food products is up to 2300 g.
If there are signs of decompensation, it is necessary to agree with the doctor the total amount of liquid. If the patient suffers from excessive weight, then it is necessary to reduce the consumption of high-calorie foods, arrange unloading days.
Patient after a heart attack should follow a regular stool. Undesirable straining, so in the diet should always be grated beetroot, soaked for the night prunes and dried apricots. In the evening, you should take kefir not more than 24 hours ago.
Only basic principles of nutrition are described for patients with a heart attack. If complications arise, the doctor may recommend additional restrictions. Difficulties are possible if the patient has concomitant diseases of the stomach or kidneys. The attitude to nutrition should be equal with other types of therapy.