Diseases of the spinal column affect patients of different age groups. Inadequate nutrition, excessive physical activity or sedentary lifestyle, pathology of metabolism, trauma, congenital and acquired diseases of the musculoskeletal system lead to degenerative-dystrophic processes of the spine. To get rid of the disease apply complex therapy, which includes physiotherapy( LFK).
The technique is aimed at strengthening the muscular framework of the back, improving the circulation of the spinal column, activating the metabolism in the cartilaginous and bone tissue. Due to the regular implementation of metered exercise stops the progression of the disease, improves the flexibility of the back, normalizes the work of internal organs. Treatment is prescribed during the period of abating of acute process and elimination of pain sensations of high intensity.
Principles of prescribing exercise therapy
Physiotherapy is prescribed by a physician according to the severity and activity of the spinal column disease. Classes can be held in special offices of medical institutions( polyclinics, sanatoria, hospitals) or at home. Usually the first 10-12 days of therapy exercises are performed under the supervision of a specialist, and after mastering the movements, the therapeutic gymnastics is done independently. Complex exercise therapy depends on the following factors:
- The level of physical fitness of the patient: regular exercise;doing morning exercises;sedentary lifestyle.
- Stage of the disease after the exacerbation period: early recovery period( 7-10 days);late recovery period( 2-4 weeks);period of disease prevention( after 30 days).
The complexity of the exercises, the frequency of repetitions, the amplitude of movements is higher for people with good physical activity in the period of persistent remission of the disease. During exercise exercises for effective recovery of spinal activity, the following principles should be adhered to:
- regular exercise;
- gradual increase in the number of repetitions, amplitude and time of the treatment complex;
- exercises should be performed several times a day at a slow pace;
- exercises should not cause increased pain during exercise and after training;
- in case of persistent pain syndrome it is necessary to consult a doctor;
- during the implementation of the treatment complex should work on muscles, ligaments, joints to the sensation of a rush of vivacity;
- exercises should increase the flexibility of the spinal column, eliminate discomfort in the back area, improve overall health.
During exercises exercise normalizes blood flow in the pathologically altered parts of the spinal column
. As a result of regular exercise, the intervertebral disc nutrition is normalized, the regeneration of bone and cartilaginous tissue is accelerated, toxins are removed from the area of damage, and the muscular-ligament back skeleton is strengthened. This helps to restore the health of the spine and prevents the worsening of diseases.
Complex LFK for the cervical spine
The defeat of the cervical spine causes difficulties in the movement of the head, which are accompanied by painful sensations. In addition, with occlusion of the neurovascular bundles, there is numbness and coldness of the upper limbs, a feeling of tingling and crawling in the fingers. The most dangerous complication of the pathological process is the disturbance of cerebral blood flow, which is accompanied by headache, dizziness, memory impairment, decreased acuity of hearing and vision. At the beginning of the classes, each exercise is performed 2-3 times, eventually increasing to 8-12 approaches.
- Sitting on a chair, turn slowly and smoothly head to the right and left until the sensation of tension in the neck. Then make the head inclination forward, trying to reach the chin with the chin above the sternum, and back. Keep track of the sensations. Slight dizziness is possible without excessive extension of the cervical spine.
- In the same starting position, gently rotate your head from the left to the right shoulder. Then tilt your head either one way or the other, trying to get your ear out of the shoulder.
- Put your palm on your forehead, press your hand against your head and counteract movement. Do the same with the palm on the right and then on the left temple.
- Place crossed fingers on the back of the neck. Tilt your elbows back until you feel tension in your torso muscles, then open your arms and lower them down.
- Lying on your back, tear your head off the floor, turn to the right and left, then slowly return to the starting position.
At the end of training it is useful to make a light self-massage of the cervical spine with stroking movements directed downwards.
Complex LFK for thoracic spine
Diseases of the thoracic spine are accompanied by pain in the back between the shoulder blades, the tension of the muscles of the trunk, the appearance of intercostal neuralgia. Due to the far-gone pathological process, the functioning of the organs of the chest can be disturbed: the heart, lungs, esophagus. Begin the exercises with 3 - 4 repetitions, gradually increasing the number of approaches to 8-10 per cycle.
Regular exercise exercises exercise the flexibility of the spine
- Diaphragmatic breathing, relaxing the muscular frame of the trunk, is performed lying on the back, under the head and shins, rollers are placed, carry out deep respiratory movements with the stomach.
- Lying on the stomach, arms extended forward. Tear off the upper humeral girdle and hands from the floor to the sensation of tension in the muscle groups of the back, then return to the starting position.
- Lying on the back, arms stretched out beyond the head. Raise straight legs and try to reach out with socks to your hands, then slowly lower your lower limbs to the floor.
- Pull the knees bent at the knee joints to the chest, grip them with your hands. Sway back and forth, then take the previous position.
- Lying on the side, lower leg bend at the knee, lift the upper one as high as possible and lock the position for a few seconds. Then do the same exercise on the other side.
- Stand on all fours, alternately bend the arch up and bend the arch down the back, head follow the movements of the trunk.
- Get on your knees, raise your hands upwards on inspiration and lower them on exhalation, trying to bring it back as much as possible until you feel the tension of your back muscles.
At the end of the exercises, exercise on your feet and regain your breathing by alternately raising and lowering your hands through the sides.
Complex LFK for the lumbar spine
Pathology of the lumbar spine causes pain in the lower back, decreased sensitivity and motor activity in the legs, worsening of the pelvic organs up to incontinence of urine and feces. Begin LFK should be from 3 to 4 repetitions of each exercise, carefully controlling their feelings, not allowing sharp inclinations and increasing discomfort. After several weeks of training, the number of repetitions is adjusted to 10-12, and then gradually increase the amplitude of movements.
In order to achieve a positive result, it is necessary to correctly perform exercises of physiotherapy exercises
- Lying on the back, contract the muscles of the press to a state of easy fatigue.
- The starting position is the same, bend your knees and tilt them to the sides, trying to touch the floor. In this case, the blades must be pressed firmly against the horizontal plane.
- Do not change the starting position. Slowly raise your straight legs up to form a right angle with your body, hold for a few seconds and lower your lower limbs to the floor.
- Lying on your back, bend your legs, put feet on the floor, hands extend along the body with the palms down. Raise the pelvis, leaning on the hands and feet, to the maximum possible position. In this case, the tension of the muscles of the waist and back should be felt.
- Lying on one side, alternately press the left and right thigh to the stomach.
- Standing on all fours, swing your legs to the sides and back.
- Sitting on the floor, stretch your legs forward, put your hands on your hips. Tilt the body back to the sensation of strong tension in the muscles of the press, then slowly return to the starting position.
- Standing on the floor, do inclines forward, backward, left and right.
Training of the muscles of the press helps strengthen the thoracic and lumbar spine of the
After classes, it is useful to take a contrast shower and rub it with a towel. Walking at a moderate pace will fix the positive result of exercise therapy and increase the effectiveness of training.
Exercises to restore the spinal column after injuries and illnesses are an important part of the healing process. The exercise therapy is performed during the rehabilitation period after the inflammation subsides and the intense pain syndrome is eliminated. The complex of physiotherapy exercises is used to prevent diseases of the musculoskeletal system and prevent exacerbation of pathology. Regular sessions help restore the physiological mobility of the spine and avoid the formation of disabilities.
- Principles of prescription of exercise therapy
- Complex of exercise therapy for cervical department
- Complex of exercise therapy for thoracic department
- Complex of exercise therapy for lumbar department