Arterial hypertension or hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease, which affects every fourth inhabitant of the planet.
The insidiousness of the disease lies in the fact that it can develop unnoticeably from a very young age.
Increased blood pressure occupies a leading position among the main reasons for the reduction of life, contributes to the development of diseases such as myocardial infarction, angina and stroke.
The nature of hypertension
The heart is a pump that pumps blood through the human circulatory system. This allows you to transport oxygen and nutrients to every cell of the body. From the force with which blood is pushed into the vessels, and from the degree of resistance of the vessels, the blood pressure depends on their elasticity. The development of hypertension is associated with impairments in the functional activity of certain parts of the brain and individual autonomic knots that regulate the frequency of muscle contractions of the heart, the volume of ejected blood and the elasticity of the vascular walls.
What is dangerous hypertensive disease?
High blood pressure leads to overloads of the heart muscle, which eventually becomes larger, the walls of the heart become thinner, it weakens, which leads to heart failure, can lead to myocardial infarction, nephrosclerosis, stroke. High blood pressure also damages the blood vessels, because they are forced to withstand a high blood pressure. The walls of the vessels thicken, the lumen narrows, the vessels lose elasticity, become brittle, which increases the risk of hemorrhage. A persistent spasm of the vessel helps maintain high blood pressure, closing the circle of violations.
Hypertension is five times more likely to develop in people who eat irrationally, use products that increase pressure: salty and fatty foods, alcohol.
Stressful situations and overweight contribute to the development of hypertension. Some specialists attach decisive importance to the development of hypertension to hereditary factors under the influence of certain external influences. So, against a background of stress in a person predisposed to hypertension, there can be a strong emotional reaction, leading to a sharp increase in blood pressure. More than half of adults have different risk factors for hypertension. To the reasons of the raised arterial pressure it is possible to carry:
As it was spoken above, at those patients, close relatives of whom suffered from high pressure, the probability of development of a hypertonia raises. The risk increases significantly if increased blood pressure was observed in several relatives.
Representatives of the strong half of humanity are more likely to develop the disease after 35 years than women who fall into the risk zone after the onset of menopause.
It was previously thought that hypertension is a disease of the elderly. Currently, there is a significant "rejuvenation" of the disease. Today, high blood pressure often develops not only in patients older than 35 years, but also in younger people, which is caused by malnutrition, poor ecology and constant stress.
Adrenaline, which is a stress hormone, causes the heart muscle to contract more often, pumping a significant amount of blood per unit of time, leading to increased pressure. With prolonged stress, the vessels wear out quickly, and the pressure increase begins to be chronic.
- Drinking alcohol
Regular consumption of strong alcoholic drinks increases blood pressure by 5 mm.gt;Art.in year.
Excess cholesterol in the blood leads to loss of vascular elasticity. Atherosclerotic plaques narrow the blood vessels, hindering the work of the heart.
Tobacco smoke when ingested causes a vasospasm, contributes to mechanical damage to them, leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
You can add to smoking the use of coffee and various power engineers. Often, it is the use of coffee that can lead to constant increased pressure.
Sedentary way of life increases the risk of hypertension by 50%.Untrained heart muscle copes worse with the arising loads.
Excess body weight leads to increased blood pressure due to metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis, hypodynamia, etc.
Prevention, how to treat high blood pressure.
During rest, blood pressure spontaneously decreases. A restful sleep and favorable conditions for rest can be a good help in the prevention of hypertension. In general, the prevention of arterial hypertension can be divided into primary and secondary.
Primary prevention is designed for still healthy people whose blood pressure does not exceed the norm. To maintain the pressure, the following are recommended:
- reasonable exercise,
- low salt diet,
- restriction of animal fat intake,
- psychological discharge,
- rejection of bad habits
If the diagnosis of "arterial hypertension" has already been made, some others are added to the listed measures. Secondary prevention is aimed at protecting target organs from the negative effects of increased blood pressure and preventing heart attack, coronary heart disease, stroke.
- Non-medicamentous therapy
Prevention of hypertension may consist of special respiratory gymnastics, relaxing massage, acupuncture, reflexology, normalization of sleep, observance of the daily regimen, intake of vitamins and antioxidants - in short, in improving the body and strengthening immunity.
- Measurement of blood pressure
Daily measurement of blood pressure and recording them in a special table for further analysis by the therapist will help the doctor form an idea about the course of the disease and prescribe an effective treatment.
In general, as already patients with hypertension patients and healthy people are encouraged to periodically "listen" to their health, noting whether there are the following symptoms that may indicate a latent flow of hypertension:
- Dizziness and headaches;
- Tachycardia, sensation of pulsation in the head;
- Sweating and redness of the face;
- Anxiety, internal tension, irritability;
- Memory impairment and reduced performance;
- Puffiness of face;
- Numbness of fingers.
If one or more of the listed ailments are of concern, then you should consult your doctor to make or exclude a diagnosis. If you do not start timely treatment, the disease can develop, worn out the heart and causing irreversible damage to various organs.
The diagnosis of arterial hypertension is not based only on blood pressure indicators obtained as a result of a single measurement. As a rule, three or more blood pressure measurements are carried out in addition for several weeks. It is mandatory to conduct laboratory studies aimed at determining the state of the cardiovascular system as a whole, the degree of involvement of various organs. Only after this, the final specified diagnosis can be delivered and treatment is prescribed.