Measles is an acute disease that belongs to the infectious group, caused by measles viruses. It manifests itself in the form of high temperature, catarrhal inflammatory phenomena in the upper respiratory tract as an ARVI, eye as a type of conjunctivitis, as well as the appearance on the skin of a specific measles rash.
Measles is a highly contagious disease, the susceptibility to it is close to 100%.After the transfer of measles, a stable immunity is formed, due to which the ill person can not become infected with measles.
In connection with such a high susceptibility, strict adherence to the timing of vaccination is necessary, and in case of detection of a sick person, quarantine and anti-epidemic measures are necessary.
- 1 Causes of measles
- 2 Symptoms of measles
- 3 Treatment of measles
- 4 Complications of measles
- 5 Prevention of measles
Causes of measles
Measles virus is transmitted by airborne droplets. The mechanism of transmission is aerosol: as a result of the release of the measles virus with saliva, during coughing and even during a conversation.
The source of infection for measles is a sick person, infectious from the last two days of the incubation period until the fourth day from the beginning of the rash.
If the mother has had previous measles, the child born by her will not be able to catch measles infection for another three months of her life. The rest of people can get measles at any age.
Symptoms of measles
There are four periods of measles infection:
- incubation, ranging from one to two weeks;
- catarrhal period;
- period of rashes;
- period of pigmentation.
The incubation period takes time from the first contact with the pathogen to the first manifestations of the disease. However, in the last two days the infected person can become a source of infection for others, although he will not have any signs of a disease yet.
The second period - catarrhal - begins with a sharp increase in temperature to 38 - 400C.At the same time, measles begins as a banal flu: in addition to fever, there is weakness, weakness, increased fatigue, reduced physical and mental performance, or loss of appetite. The general intoxication is accompanied by catarrhal phenomena: there is a cough, a runny nose, a stuffy nose. After a while the eye conjunctiva becomes inflamed - conjunctivitis develops.
During this period, the discovery of the Belsky-Filaty-Koplik stains can be said to be a measurable rash that can be detected on the mucous membrane of the cheeks. These spots are located opposite the molars. As a rule, this symptom occurs one day after the onset of catarrhal phenomena.
From the third to the fifth days from the beginning of the clinical picture of the disease, the person starts to erupt, which take a strict sequence.
In the beginning, the rash appears on the face, while the nasolabial triangle remains pale. The next day the rash is thrown on the upper limbs and upper half of the trunk. A day later the rash is found on the lower limbs and lower half of the trunk.
The rash in measles has the appearance of bright red or pink spots that can merge with each other. At first, the spots are small, but they quickly increase in size and merge.
When the rash gets the most prevalence, the temperature becomes maximum and reaches 40.50C.During the appearance of the rash, the Belsky-Filatov-Koplik spots disappear.
The rash on the body lasts for a week, then it regresses, or disappears. The rash disappears in the same order as it appears: first the face is cleaned, then the upper half of the trunk and hands, and only then the lower half of the trunk and legs.
In place of the disappearing spots, pigmentation occurs, which disappears after two weeks.
Treatment of measles
For any suspected measles development, you should immediately consult a doctor to clarify the diagnosis and prescribe the correct treatment.
Self-medication with measles infection is contraindicated, since it is possible to develop formidable complications right up to a lethal outcome.
As a rule, the diagnosis of measles infection does not constitute for the physician labor. To make the diagnosis, a measles clinic is used, and serological methods of research, if necessary.
There is no specific measles treatment. Apply strict bed rest, you should take a lot of drinking. To reduce the temperature used antipyretic. To remove catarrhal phenomena, you can use medicines for the common cold, cough and conjunctivitis. If the throat hurts, use means from a pain in a throat, and at a cough - expectorant. To strengthen immunity prescribe vitamin preparations.
As a rule, at a sufficiently light and moderate degree of the disease course, the treatment is carried out at home. It is necessary for the patient to ensure complete rest, to darken the room.
Complications of measles
Complications of measles can occur in both adults and children. However, most often they appear in children under five years old, as well as in adults over the age of twenty.
Among the most common complications of measles are:
- otitis, eustachaitis;
- lymphadenitis of the cervical lymph nodes;
- laryngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis;
The most important measles prevention is vaccination. Vaccinate children, starting with one year of life. Revaccination is carried out at six years.
A measles vaccine can be in the form of a mono-vaccine or as a tri-vaccine, which includes a vaccination against measles, rubella and mumps, or mumps.
Immunity after vaccination persists for up to fifteen years. Vaccination is contraindicated in pregnant women, with tuberculosis, with leukemia or lymphoma, as well as people with immunodeficiency, including HIV and AIDS infected.
If the family has been diagnosed with measles, then prophylaxis is carried out in the house to everyone living there. After contact, all those in contact with the patient are isolated.