Neuroses ( from Greek neuron - "nerve", osis - suffix, denoting disease) - functional( reversible) neuropsychiatric disorders caused by mental stress( psychotrauma), which affects especially important for human relationshipsand spiritual values.
The following are the most typical symptoms of neurosis in adults:
- mood instability( emotional lability), that is, a rapid change in mood( mainly in the negative side) for a minor cause;
- increased fatigue;
- is one of the symptoms of neurosis - it is a violation of sleep;
- increased sensitivity to external and internal stimuli( light, sounds, touches, etc.);
- is also a symptom of the state of neurosis are vegetative disorders( sweating, palpitations, fluctuations in blood pressure, abnormalities of the stomach, muscle tension, etc.);
- low self-esteem, self-doubt and self-reliance.
For people suffering from neurosis, it is characteristic:
- awareness of the existing violations( ie, a critical attitude towards one's condition);
- absence of psychoses( hallucinations, delusions, disorders of consciousness, etc.);
- keeping the intellect and memory at the same level;
- violations in the work of internal organs and the psyche of a predominantly functional nature( that is, no matter how much costly research you have done, no anatomical damage, neoplasms, etc. will not be found).
Risk factors for the development of neuroses
The damaging effect of a trauma is determined by its informational and personal significance: the higher it is for a person, the greater its intensity, the more likely the development of painful disorders.
In addition to psychotrauma as the determining( causative) factor in the onset of neurosis, it is usually necessary to have a predisposing and trigger factor.
Predisposing risk factor for neuroses are personality characteristics that make it selectively vulnerable to certain psychotrauma;depletion of the nervous system due to emotional stress, illness and injury.
The trigger factor is the last drop that overcharged the extra burden, situational conflicts, etc.
The combination of these pathogenic factors leads to the appearance of a neurosis that manifests itself in mental and somatovegetative disorders.
The emergence and development of neurosis is due to the inadequate ability of psychological defense mechanisms to cope with the psychotraumatic effect, which in turn leads to a person's inability to adapt to new conditions.
The main symptoms of neurasthenia
Neurasthenia ( from the Greek neuron - "nerve" and astheneia - "weakness") is an exhaustion of the nervous system as a result of prolonged stress stress under the influence of psychotrauma. Characterized by persistent asthenic manifestations, which have a reversible character.
The main symptoms of neurasthenia( asthenic triad) are as follows:
1. Increased mental and physical exhaustion: rapid fatigue, a feeling of constant fatigue, loss of ability for prolonged mental and physical stress, decreased performance, memory and attention impairment, easy change of excessiveactivity on apathy, irritability, anger, tearfulness, poor tolerance of external stimuli( noise, bright light).
2. Visceral-vegetative disorders: constrictive headaches, sensation of vascular pulsation( especially in the temples), sweating of the palms and feet, chilliness of the extremities, unpleasant sensations in the heart or abdomen, constipation, uniform increase in tendon reflexes, tremor of the fingers, tics of the facial musculature( most often the eyelids), muscle pain, increased skin sensitivity, decreased appetite, sexual disorders.
3. Sleep disturbance.