12Mar

Types of dental implants and methods of their installation

Today, even a specialist is able to get confused in a variety of dental designs used for implantation. Such diversity speaks about the popularity of the method among patients and the possibility of installing artificial teeth, in various clinical cases.

Conditionally, there is a certain classification, which divides exactly the implants themselves. This is a classical scheme that is able to combine some types of structures and highlight the main groups.

  • 1 Content Classification by manufacturing the titanium material rod
  • 2 Classification shape
    • 2.1 root form implants
      • 2.1.1 Screw implants
      • 2.1.2 Cylindrical implants Implants
    • 2.2 the plate forms
    • 2.3 Combined implants
    • 2.4 Endodontic implants
    • 2.5 Subperiosteal implants
    • 2.6 Intralucosal implants
    • 2.7 Basal implants
    • 2.8 Orthodontic implants
  • 3 Methods inSETTING implants
    • 3.1 Simultaneous implantation
    • 3.2 Patchwork technique
    • 3.3 minimally invasive technique
    • 3.4 lateral technique

Classification

manufacturing material Before the procedure gained considerable popularity for a long time held the selection of the material of which will be further made implants. The most reliable was titanium. This metal showed excellent biocompatibility with surrounding natural tissues, as a result of clinical trials. In addition, titanium is virtually unaffected by the damaging effects of biological fluids.

At present, from the aesthetic point of view, it is often established constructions of zirconium dioxide. However, zirconium has less integration into bone tissue than titanium. An excellent option in this case is the use of titanium - zirconium alloy. The search for alternative materials is ongoing.

Classification by the shape of the titanium rod

This is the main and significant difference between the implants from each other. The most popular types are:

  1. Implants of the root form

They are the most popular. Are applied at a good volume of an osteal tissue. If it is not enough before the installation, a sinus lift is performed. The design is similar to a screw - a self-tapping screw made of titanium alloy. The most common are helical and cylindrical subtypes.

  1. Screw implants

Screw implants Are the most common designs used in modern dentistry. For the best fixation on their surface, various types of threads are applied, creating a rough surface and covered with special bioactive materials.

More often used dismountable types of structures, consisting of a body, abutment, gum former and screw cap. The body is the part that is placed directly into the bone tissue. The plug is installed before closing the gum implant. The abutment is a specific device that connects the root part of the structure and the artificial crown.

  1. Cylindrical implants

Cylindrical Imlants Such devices are used if the tooth was removed not so long ago, about 2-3 weeks ago, there is no pronounced bone atrophy and pronounced inflammation. Today all cylindrical rods, which are manufactured, are collapsible.

They have an excellent primary stabilization, due to the thread with a small profile. They are mainly made of zirconium.

  1. Implants of plate form

Implants of plate form These are fine-form constructions. They allow a deep penetration into the bone, which ensures their strength in the initial stabilization and in further operation. They are placed in a narrow bone tissue, when other species can not be used.

  1. Combined implants

5. Combined implant Such designs have rather complex shapes, and sometimes even larger volumes, especially with a large amount of tooth loss. They are a combination of plate and root devices.

  1. Endodontic implants

Endodontic implants The technology of installation of structures is not traumatic. It is produced through the treated and expanded root canal. They can be installed even with a serious destruction of the crown of the tooth. Titanium rods allow to stabilize the possible mobility of the root and ensure a reliable fixation of the artificial crown.

  1. Subperiosteal implants

7. Subperiosteal implants They are placed under the periosteum, with a strong thinning of the bone. The strength of the retention of the device provides a sufficiently large area of ​​contact with the tissues.

  1. Intralucosal implants

Intralucosal implants Such constructions are used very rarely today. They are mainly used when it is necessary to stabilize dentures.

  1. Basal implants

Basal implants This is a special kind of devices having a T-shape. Installation of implants is carried out deep into the bone, into the most durable so-called basal layer. Before installation make a cut in the shape of the construction from the side of the bone.

  1. Orthodontic implants

Orthodontic implants These are mini-implants that are temporarily installed during orthodontic treatment, when you need to attach a certain design to this place( ligatures and elastic rods, wire arcs).They are put on the principle of self-tapping, i.e.simply screwed in by sharp threads.

Methods for installing implants

  1. Single-step implantation of

To be performed in one visit during a tooth extraction operation. The technique is most popular due to reduced traumatism. But the method has many contraindications. So, for example, teeth are removed mainly due to inflammation of the bone with the formation of purulent exudate. To put an implant in this case is impossible, as there will be no engraftment, and the inflammatory process will only intensify.

  1. Patchwork technique

Before installation, soft tissue is detached in the implant placement area. Then, in the bared bones, make a hole with a special drill and place the structure.

  1. Minimally Invasive Technique

Apply pre-made implants according to the individual template. The installation is performed by puncturing soft tissue and screwing the stem into the bone. The method is not very traumatic, without a cut. The uniqueness lies in the fact that the design is made after the study on a 3D tomograph.

  1. The lateral technique of

is the most traumatic. Conduct an autopsy of the gums and bone tissue from the side. Also on the side of the hole is made, which corresponds to the shape of the implant. After the operation, sutures are applied and a course of anti-inflammatory therapy is prescribed. Despite the very severe traumatization, the method makes it possible to fix the structure very firmly.

Another type of installation technique is delayed and immediate loading. With delayed loading, the installation of an artificial crown is carried out in a few months. This allows bone tissue to tighten the implant and integrate into its structures. Immediate loading is only indicated if the metal rod is deeply installed.

Learn more about the methods of installing implants with images, and their prices.