The rectum of the rectum is a painful condition, manifested by a futile urge to defecate. The name this state received from the Greek word teinesmos, which can literally be translated as a "vain urge".Tenezms cause severe discomfort to the patients and do not lead to full-fledged defecation: often they end up with a mild secretion of stools sometimes with mucus, blood or pus. Tenesmus is rarely found as an isolated symptom: they are usually accompanied by a violation of stool, bloating, flatulence.
The causes of the appearance of tenesms
The main cause of this condition is a disturbance of the excitability of the nervous system, which leads to spasms of the smooth muscles of several parts of the intestine.
Spasms affect the muscles of the small pelvis, rectum, perineum - all this leads to indiscriminate contraction of the intestines, which do not give normal promotion of the contents.
As a result, strong urges arise which do not lead to defecation and do not bring relief. Tenesmus of the rectum is a common symptom of a number of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. They can indicate the following pathologies:
- Food poisoning, manifested by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome occurs after consuming poor-quality products or contaminated water, multiple defecation can be accompanied by false urges.
- Infectious diseases. Among them, salmonellosis, intestinal tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid, etc. Dyspepsia is associated with intoxication due to the activity of microorganisms.
- Diseases of the rectum: hemorrhoids, proctitis, paroproctitis. Often the causes of the tenes are anal fissures, fistulas, stenoses, etc.
- One of the most dangerous causes is neoplasm in the intestine - it can be both polyps and cancerous malignant tumors. Diagnosis of them is complicated by the fact that the symptoms can remain hidden for a long time. First of all, it is necessary to pay attention to the constant aching pain, which is intensified during defecation. In addition, there may be constant causeless constipation, accompanied by flatulence and symptoms of intestinal obstruction.
However, not always tenesmus arise due to the effects of infection or organic pathologies. False desires can have a psychosomatic cause and arise under the influence of nervous disorders: neuroses, diseases of the central nervous system, borderline states. It is very important to determine correctly, because of what there are tenesmus, only then the treatment will give a positive result.
Also, tenesmus in the rectum or bladder may be the result of surgery or gynecological pathologies. If the exact cause is not quickly established, a comprehensive examination will be assigned, in which case "idiopathic tenesmus" can be diagnosed.
Symptoms of tenesmus and the main ways of diagnosing
Clinical picture of the pathological condition: the patient feels pain in the lower abdomen, they are spastic and accompanied by strong urge to defecate. However, the urge is ineffective, sometimes a small amount of intestinal contents with mucus or blood impurities is released.
Pains in the intestine are supplemented by painful spasms of anal sphincters, possibly the formation of erosive lesions of the skin and mucous in the anus.
Symptoms can be expressed slightly, but very often they become intolerable and cause suffering to the patient. The uncoordinated nature of muscle contractions does not give normal intestinal motility, therefore its contents do not advance, and the morbid condition can last a long time.
If tenesmus occurs not for the first time, it is an occasion to contact a specialist. Pathological false urges to defecate can signal very serious pathologies of the digestive system, so you need to start treatment as soon as possible.
The patient is sent to the therapist, after which a full examination is conducted with the proctologist and gastroenterologist. A blood test( general and clinical), anoscopy, colonoscopy, ultrasound of the internal organs of the abdominal cavity will be assigned. As a result, the doctor will determine the cause of the occurrence of tenesmus, and the treatment will be aimed at combating the underlying disease.
Methods of treatment of the tenesms
Treatment can be divided into the main and symptomatic. The first is aimed at eliminating the underlying disease. After carrying out all the tests and diagnosing the doctor will choose the methods of drug therapy, and will also appoint a lightweight diet that will help the intestines to recover.
When diagnosing hemorrhoids and other bowel diseases, the doctor will also give recommendations for lifestyle correction: daily exercise, strict adherence to hygiene, etc.
Symptomatic treatment is aimed at removing spasms of smooth muscles to stop pain and cause false urges to defecate. The basis of such treatment are myotropic antispasmodics - No-Shpa, drotaverin.
Drugs are given in the form of tablets, the daily dose of antispasmodics can be 40-80 mg. The medicine is taken up to three times a day: it will eliminate the main unpleasant symptoms and normalize the operation of the autonomic nervous system.
If the symptoms are pronounced and deliver a significant discomfort to the patient, antispasmodics can be prescribed in the form of injections. Such treatment can not be long: antispasmodics have a number of side effects. These include dizziness, arrhythmia, impaired coordination, slowing of reaction, etc. That is why you need to eliminate the cause of unpleasant symptoms as soon as possible: complex treatment and strict adherence to all medical recommendations will be required.
Calm smooth muscles of the bowels help cool sessile tubs. In addition, the doctor can prescribe an enema with a decoction of chamomile or a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate. The use of any folk remedies should be subject to medical supervision. Remember: the main thing is not to remove the symptoms, but to find out and eliminate the true cause of their appearance.
Especially dangerous delay in neoplasm in the intestines: the faster the treatment will be started, the lower the risk of malignant tumors.
Measures to prevent bowel disease
Tenesmus, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence and other symptoms of bowel dysfunction are most often the result of malnutrition and a disturbed healthy lifestyle.
Observance of simple measures will help to normalize the diet and get rid of many unpleasant symptoms. Measures of prevention of tenesm can be called:
- Eating at about the same time, dividing the daily ration by 4-5 times, portions should be small. This will not overload the intestines and ensure complete digestion of food.
- Refusal from snacks and eating dry. Lack of fluid is one of the most common causes of constipation, which in turn can lead to tenesmus and other abnormalities of the digestive tract. The diet can include a small second breakfast and an afternoon snack: these can be fresh fruit, yoghurts, other sour-milk products.
- Food should not be too hot or too cold. This leads to an additional irritation of the mucosa and adversely affects the microflora.
- It is advisable to reduce to minimum the smoked products, spicy seasonings, salted and pickled products. All this irritates the intestines, leads to an exacerbation of existing chronic diseases. One of the reasons for the tenesmus can be excessive consumption of refractory hard-to-digestible fats: the body can not cope with work, and this provokes nervous excitation of intestinal motility.
- The diet should contain food with a lot of fiber. These are green vegetables, cereals, bran. All this helps to improve peristalsis and prevents constipation: the body will be provided with stable digestion of food, and defecation will not create any unpleasant sensations.
All of these preventative measures provide an opportunity to get rid of negative symptoms and minimize any problems in the work of the intestine. Maintaining a healthy diet will make it possible to forget about many unpleasant diseases, and you will feel great.
More information about diseases of the rectum can be found from the video:
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