In a person who has undergone a cholecystectomy, life is divided into two stages. The first refers to the preoperative period, the second - after it. The operation is not assigned to an "empty spot," therefore, the final stage of the first period of life was a certain kind of physical and psychological suffering associated with periodic pain, regular visits to the attending physician, doubts and worries about the upcoming surgical intervention. The postoperative period begins with the fact that "everything is already behind", and the rehabilitation period filled with uncertainties is ahead. However, life after removal of the gall bladder continues. The main task at the present stage, which worries the patient, is the question of changes in the digestive process.
- 1 Removal of the gallbladder. Post-operation syndrome
- 2 Relapse
- 3 Dietary food in the post-operation period
- 4 Possible consequences of surgical intervention
- 5 Basic diet in the post-operation period
- 6 Recommended products
Gallbladder removal. Postoperative syndrome
The gallbladder, as an organ, is endowed with certain functions. In it, as in a tank, bile accumulates and concentrates. It is peculiar to maintain optimal pressure in the bile ducts. But with the diagnosis of calculous cholecystitis, or cholelithiasis, the functions of the gallbladder are already limited, and it practically does not participate in the digestive process.
Throughout the disease, the body independently removes the gallbladder from the digestive processes. Using compensatory mechanisms, it completely adapts to new conditions, in which the function of the gallbladder is already turned off. The function of bile secretion is imposed on other organs. Therefore, the removal of the already-derived organ life cycle does not inflict a serious blow to the body, since adaptation has already occurred. Through the operation, the organ that promotes the spread of the infection, the focus that generates the inflammatory process, is removed. In this case, the patient can only come to relief.
Operative decision-making by the patient about the forthcoming operation, in many respects promotes the successful outcome of the surgical intervention and a short period of rehabilitation. With timely decision-making, the patient protects himself from complications that may occur as a result of delaying the timing of an operation, questioning the satisfactory state of the patient in the post-operation period.
When leaving the hospital, the former patient, and now the person undergoing rehabilitation, is shielded from a constant visit to the manipulation rooms and the permanent care of the attending physician. Duodenal sounding and dyubazh remained in the life that was before the operation.
However, there are exceptions when the patient for a long time does not agree to the surgical intervention, allowing the disease for a long time to affect the body. Spreading from the walls of the gallbladder is an inflammatory process that can affect neighboring organs, causing complications that develop into coexisting diseases. As a rule, against the background of calculous cholecystitis, there are problems in the form of peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, inflammation of the head of the pancreas, gastritis or colitis.
Patients with complications after the operation to remove the gallbladder, need additional treatment after discharge from the hospital. The nature of the treatment and the duration of the procedures to be performed are prescribed by the doctor's presenter. The main issue facing both the group of operated patients without obvious signs of complications, and in patients with complications, is the process of nutrition. The diet in the postoperative period is not strict, but it excludes from use animal fats that are difficult to digest by the body:
- pork fat
- lamb roasted
With strict diet in the pre-operative period, patients are allowed to gradually introduce new foods into the diet, excluding canned cans, strong tea, coffee, categorically prohibited from drinking alcoholic beverages.
Occurrence of relapse
Surgical intervention does not affect the bile composition produced by the body. The production of hepatocytes by stone-forming bile may continue. This phenomenon in medicine is called "Biliary insufficiency."It consists in the violation of physiological norms in increasing the amount of bile produced by the body and its increasing pressure in the bile ducts. Under the influence of excessive pressure, a toxic liquid changes the structure of the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines.
With a negative prediction, up to the formation of a poor-quality tumor. Therefore, the main task in the post-operation period is a biochemical study of the composition of bile, carried out at regular intervals. As a rule, duodenal examination of the duodenum is carried out. It can not be replaced by ultrasound, because ultrasound is unable to produce the corresponding result.
A bright indication of the occurrence of recurrence, or secondary formation of stones, is the placement in a refrigerator of 5 ml selected for liquid analysis for a 12-hour period. If the deposition of precipitate is observed during the allotted time in the liquid, bile is capable of forming new stones. In such a case, medicamentous treatment with preparations containing bile acids and bile is prescribed, being stimulators of bile production:
All of them are used as replacement therapy for biliary insufficiency after removal of the gallbladder. A mandatory appointment in such cases is ursodeoxycholic acid, which does not cause intoxication and is harmless to the mucous membranes of the intestine and stomach. It is taken, depending on the intended use, from 250 to 500 mg, once a day, preferably overnight. Drugs containing ursodeoxycholic acid:
Stones can be re-formed, but not in the gall bladder, but in the bile ducts. A decrease in the recurrence rate can be the exclusion from the diet of products containing cholesterol in large quantities:
- fried and spicy dishes
- concentrated broths
- egg yolks
- fatty fish and meat
All of the above products carry a significant complication for the pancreas and liver.
Dietary food in the post-operation period
Feeding during rehabilitation after removal of the gallbladder is given special attention. The main point is its regularity. The volume of food should be small, and the frequency of food intake is from 4 to 6 times a day. Food, as a stimulant of the bile-forming process, in this case is an irritant for the digestive organs, thus preventing bile congestion. As a natural stimulus, food, promotes not only the formation, but also the excretion of bile from the bile ducts into the intestine.
The most powerful product that promotes the forcing of bile is olive oil. In general, all plant fats have a strong choleretic effect. Patients prone to fattening, it is desirable to limit, or minimize the use of foods with a high carbohydrate content:
- confectionery and pasta
Patients who underwent gallbladder removal surgery are not recommended for sanatorium treatment, except for patients with complicated cholecystitis or other concomitant diseases. Depending on the degree of severity of the surgery, patients are not recommended heavy physical exertion, or physical work, giving tension to the abdominal press, for 6 to 12 months after the surgery. Severe physical exertion can lead to the formation of postoperative hernias. Full, and especially obese patients, it is recommended to wear a bandage during this period.
Great value after discharge of the patient from the hospital, medical specialists attach to physical therapy. Specially designed exercises stimulate the organs of the abdominal cavity to form and remove bile. This "massage" with the help of physical exercises allows you to speed up the process of restoring the functions of damaged abdominal tissue.
Possible consequences of surgical intervention
As a rule, in patients in life after removal of the gallbladder, no negative consequences occur. This is ideal, but in the real world, the person who underwent the operation is prone to a whole complex of symptoms, in particular psychological ones, called "Postcholecystectomy syndrome".
Accumulated over the years of illness, the patient does not let go, even after such a fait accompli as an operation to remove the gallbladder. All also the former patient suffers from dryness and a feeling of bitterness in his mouth, worries the pain in the right hypochondrium area, also causes intolerance and nausea the appearance of fatty foods.
All these symptoms refer to the psychological condition of the patient and are not closely related to the internal processes taking place inside the patient, like a sick tooth that has already been removed, and he continues to give a painful sensation. But if such symptoms continue for a long time, and the operation was not carried out in time, therefore, the causes can be hidden in the development of concomitant diseases. The main causes leading to negative consequences after removal of the gallbladder:
- Digestive disorders
- Pathological changes in bile-excreting tracts
- Poorly performed operation
- Acute pancreatic and liver diseases
- Chronic hepatitis
- Dysfunction of the sphincter of Oddi.
To prevent postcholecystectomy syndrome, a thorough examination of the patient is carried out both before the operation and during the postoperative period. Great importance is given to the general condition of the patient and the presence of concomitant or chronic diseases. A direct contraindication to surgery to remove the gallbladder can be the presence of pathologies in the patient's body.
The basic diet in the post-operation period
The possibility of occurrence of certain problems with nutrition associated with the removal of the gallbladder can be solved by an individual diet for the patient, avoiding the methods of medicamentous effects on the body. This approach to the patient can completely neutralize the postcholecystectomy syndrome that occurs after the surgery.
The main point is not the products allowed for use during the rehabilitation of an aftercare operation, but the dietary process. Food should be divided into small portions and taken often at regular intervals. If the patient used food 2-3 times a day before the operation, then in the period after the operation, he needs to receive from 5 to 6 servings per day. This food is called fractional and designed specifically for patients of this profile.
The diet eliminates foods high in animal fats, fried and spicy foods. The focus is on the temperature of cooked food. For patients, it is not recommended to eat strongly chilled or strongly heated food. Categorically it is not recommended to use carbonated drinks. Such recommendations are associated exclusively with the absence of the gallbladder. Special recommendations include frequent drinking water. Before each meal, the patient is required to drink a glass of water, or 30 ml per kilogram of body weight. Water removes the aggression of bile acids, produced by the ducts, and is the main source of protection of the mucous membranes of the duodenum and gastrointestinal tract.
In addition, water stops the passage of bile, occurring at the initial moment after the operation, when there may be a change in the motility of the duodenum and bile may return to the stomach. At such times, the patient may experience heartburn or bitterness in the mouth. Water is opposed to this process, being a natural neutralizer. Dyspeptic disorders - flatulence, bloating, rumbling, constipation, diarrhea, can also be stopped by taking a glass of drinking still water. Visiting pools, open water bodies is very useful, as water is a source of gentle natural massage for the muscles and internal organs of the abdominal cavity. Water procedures are shown within 1-1.5 months after the surgical procedure.
In addition to swimming for patients who have undergone gall bladder removal, walking is very useful. A daily walk on foot for 30-40 minutes helps to remove bile from the body and prevents its stagnation. Also recommended morning light exercise in the form of charging. Do not exercise on the press, which can only start a year after surgery.
- Bread. Yesterday's baking, coarse grinding, gray or rye. It is not recommended to eat muffins, pancakes, pancakes, puff pastry.
- Groats. Buckwheat, oatmeal. Cereals should be well-brewed.
- Meat, fish, poultry. Low-fat grades. The cooking process is boiled, steamed or in a quenched form.
- The fish is baked. The use of broths is excluded. Soups are prepared on vegetable broths.
- Spices, spices, seasonings, sauces are not recommended.
- Eggs. Only in the form of a protein omelet. The yolk must be excluded.
- Dairy and sour milk products with the exception of whole milk. Sour cream - no more than 15% of fat content.
- Fats. The fats used in food should not be of animal origin.
- Vegetables. Fresh, boiled or baked. Particular preference is given to pumpkin and carrots. It is not recommended to eat beans, garlic, onions, radish, sorrel.
- Berries and fruits. Preference is given to sweet varieties. Cranberries and apples are not recommended for use.
- Sweets. Honey, molasses, natural marmalade on agar-agar, preserves, jams. It is completely necessary to abandon cocoa products, confectionery products, ice cream.
- Drinks. The diet should not be carbonated, hot or cold drinks. Recommended decoction of rose hips, sweet juices, compote of dried fruits.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the prevention of cholelithiasis after a surgery to remove the gallbladder, is a complex physiotherapy, which includes ozone therapy. Ozone, being a natural antibiotic, enhances immunity, destroys colonies of bacteria, viruses and fungal diseases. Ozone helps to correct the functioning of hepatocytes, which are responsible for the formation of bile.
On how people live after removing the gallbladder, will tell thematic video:
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