Posture is the habitual position of a person at rest and in movement, which is regulated at the unconscious level( motor stereotype).Each person has only one, right or wrong, posture.
Posture disorders are a group of congenital or acquired conditions characterized by various curvatures of the spinal column, which also leads to pathological types of posture.
There are many factors that can lead to curvature of the spine. Today, the main cause of the violation of posture is the modern way of life( lack of motor activity, uncomfortable working posture, work at the computer, etc.).
Correct posture and its meaning
Posture has appeared in the process of human evolution, is inherent only to him and is associated with the upright.
Signs of normal posture:
- head looks straight;
- the lower corners of the scapula, the nipples, shoulders are symmetrical;
- lines from shoulder to ear on the right and left are of the same length;
- spinous processes of all vertebrae form one straight line;
- if you examine the back of the spine - it is absolutely smooth;
- physiological curves are expressed within the norm( cervical and lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis), there are no pathological bends( scoliosis);
- line, which connects the 7 cervical vertebra and the interannual fold, straight.
Particularly great importance of posture in the period of growth and development of the skeleton. If the causes of the violation of posture are valid during this period, the deformations of the spine, thorax, pelvic bones, skeleton of the lower extremities, feet quickly develop.
Thoracic scoliosis and its symptoms
Basic posture functions:
- protects the human musculoskeletal system from excessive loads and traumatic injuries;
- performs utilitarian tasks - maintaining equilibrium, so that all movements do not cause difficulties for a person;
- provides the maximum amplitude of movements in all joints;
- influences a person's mental characteristics.
Causes of violations of
The causes of the disruption of the normal position of the spine are congenital and acquired.
To congenital reasons disorders of posture include pathology, which develops at the stage of intrauterine development of the fetus( hypoplasia of the vertebrae or their parts, wedge-shaped and additional vertebrae, etc.).
Acquired causes of the violation of normal posture:
- various diseases in which the spinal cord, back muscles, ligaments and joints are involved in the pathological process( rickets, tuberculosis, osteochondrosis, tumor vertebral lesion, connective tissue disease);
- spine trauma( fractures, dislocations, sprains and tears of muscles, ligaments);
- defects of the musculoskeletal system( flat feet, different length of legs, coxarthrosis);
- visual impairment, especially nearsightedness and strabismus, which cause a person to constantly take the wrong and non-physiological working posture;
- features of professional employment rights( long stay in one position), for example, work at the computer;
- inadequate muscle development.
The most common reason for the disruption of normal posture is the dynamic and static overvoltage of the spine in the period of its formation and growth( incorrect posture at the table, long stay at the computer, working posture with a bowed head, etc.).
The incorrect position of the child at the desk often leads to postural disorders
The main types of
All disorders of posture, regardless of the reasons, can be divided into several groups:
- Violations in the frontal plane.
- Violations in the sagittal plane.
- Violations in 2 planes.
In addition, depending on the type of pathological bends, distinguish:
- scoliosis - curvature of the spine to the side( right-sided, left-sided, S-shaped);
- pathological lordosis - excessive protrusion of the spinal column forward, most often observed in the lumbar region;
- abnormal kyphosis - excessive protrusion of the spine back, most often occurs in the thoracic region.
The most common types of postural disorders
The stoop - the basis of such a violation of posture is the deepening of the thoracic kyphosis and a decrease in the lumbar lumbar region. Recognize stoop is not difficult. It is accompanied by such signs as the reduction of the shoulder joints and pterygoid scapula.
Round back - deepening of the thorax kyphosis, lumbar lordosis disappears. The center of gravity is shifted forward, because of which the person begins to walk on the half-bent lower limbs. The head tilts forward, the humeral joints are given, the arms hang in front of the body, the thorax sinks, the abdomen bulges forward, the scapula protrudes.
Rounded back - all physiological curves of the spine deepen. Accompanied by such signs: the legs are slightly bent, the stomach bulges forward, the shoulders are brought, the pterygoids, the head is pushed anteriorly.
Flat back - flattening of all physiological curves of the spinal column. The chest shifts forward, the stomach hangs, the cushioning ability of the spine is lost, and when running, the jumps of a thrust painfully flow into the head.
Flat-concave spine - flattening of the thoracic kyphosis, deepening of the lumbar lordosis, the pelvis shifts back, the legs are bent at the knees, the paddles are pterygoid.
There are a lot of methods that help diagnose the violation of posture and its type. In each case, an orthopedic consultation is necessary. The doctor will examine the patient and prescribe all the necessary diagnostic procedures to establish the diagnosis and cause of the violation of the position of the spine.
The most common types of posture disorder
Complex of diagnostic procedures for violation of posture:
- somatoscopic and somatometric methods( inspection and measurement of various distances);
- mathematical methods - calculation of various indices and indicators based on measurements;
- X-ray examination of the spine;
What is the danger?
By themselves, posture disorders are not a disease, but they inevitably lead to the development of spinal pathology. Often even lead to disruption of the internal organs. Poor posture is a serious risk factor for osteochondrosis and other degenerative-dystrophic disorders of the spinal column. It leads to secondary deformations of the musculoskeletal system, weakness of the abdominal muscles and back, disruption of the respiratory and digestive organs.
Normal posture can be restored with the help of regular special exercises
Prevention of violations of normal posture includes:
- to sleep on a hard surface or on an orthopedic mattress, in the position on the abdomen or on the back;
- careful selection of shoes, it is better if the shoes will be orthopedic;
- indemnification of violations of the structure of the feet( platypodia);
- the correct organization and strict observance of the regime of the day( work, sleep, rest, food, etc.);
- permanent active physical activity;
- timely diagnosis and treatment of pathology, which can lead to abnormal posture;
- disposal of bad habits;
- the correct carrying of manual load( bags, briefcases, backpacks);
- swimming occupation;
- control over the position of the body during work and leisure.
The statement that bad posture can not be corrected is completely wrong. If you set yourself such a goal, actively engage in your health, lifestyle changes, a special set of gymnastic exercises, you can certainly improve your posture and feel more confident.