It is accepted to divide renal failure into acute and chronic.
Causes and symptoms of acute renal failure
Acute renal failure( ARF) develops due to infectious diseases, injuries, blood loss, diarrhea, toxic effects of poisons or certain medications. The main symptoms of arthrosis:
- decrease in the amount of urine output to 300-500 ml.per day;
- increase in nitrogen metabolites in the blood( azotemia);
- changes in blood pressure indicators;
- nausea, vomiting;
- is possible pulmonary edema with the appearance of pronounced dyspnea and wet wheezes;
- drowsiness, obvious retardation;
- predisposition due to reduced immunity to the development of infectious diseases - pneumonia, sepsis, stomatitis, pneumonia.
Causes and symptoms of chronic renal failure
Chronic renal failure( CRF) is an irreversible impairment of the functional activity of the kidneys resulting from necrosis of their tissue and death of nephrons. It develops against the background of kidney stones, polycystosis, chronic forms of glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, diabetes mellitus and other pathologies affecting the kidneys.
Symptoms of CRF:
- latent stage: there are no visible signs of pathology, proteinuria can be detected from the results of the tests, sometimes absent-mindedness, inhibition and lethargy are observed;
- compression stage: manifested by decreased urine density with simultaneous increase in its volume, thirst, dry mucous membranes, rapid fatigue, increased levels of urea and creatinine;
- intermittent stage: the glomerular filtration rate is significantly reduced, acidosis( displacement of the acid-base balance of the body), azotemia develops, the level of creatinine greatly increases.;
- terminal stage: there are signs of heart failure, increasing edema, stagnant process in internal organs and tissues, intoxication and poisoning of the body with undeveloped metabolic products, infectious complications, anemia often join, a characteristic odor of ammonia from the mouth, vomiting, diarrhea.
Treatment of acute renal failure
Medical care for patients with ARI is primarily to eliminate the causes of acute renal impairment and to conduct symptomatic treatment: reducing blood pressure, replenishing the volume of circulating blood, removing stones, swelling, purifying the body of toxic toxins with plasmapheresisand hemosorption( purification of blood from harmful impurities and poisons).
To facilitate the outflow of urine, diuretics are prescribed. At the same time, strict control is carried out for liquids drunk and taken out with urine. Patients are prescribed compliance with the diet with the exception of protein foods and potassium in food. Antibacterial therapy is mandatory. To prevent the development of complications of acute renal failure, hemodialysis is shown with the organization of dynamic monitoring of the most important parameters - blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, etc.
Possible complications and consequences:
- hyperkalemia( increased potassium content in blood plasma);
- bradycardia is a kind of arrhythmia, a decrease in heart rate;
- decreased immunity;
- development of infectious diseases, sepsis;
- disorders of the nervous system: alternation of apathy and inhibition with bouts of anxiety, arousal and fear;
- congestive heart failure;
- gastroenterocolitis, bleeding.
Treatment of chronic renal failure
The earlier a patient with CRF to seek help, the less the severity of the symptoms of the disease and the risk of complications. It is very important to determine the cause of CRF development and to do everything possible to eliminate the effect of the underlying disease on kidney function.
Drugs that normalize blood pressure, support cardiac activity, antibacterial agents are used. The observance of protein-free calorie diet, with sodium restriction and sufficient amino acid content in food, is shown. In the terminal stage, it is advisable to conduct hemodialysis or kidney transplantation.
Complications of CRF:
- peripheral nerve damage;
- osteoporosis, arthritis;
- damage to the stomach and intestines due to impaired renal excretion and the accumulation of metabolic products, with the development of ulcers, gastritis and colitis;
- decreased immunity;
- myocarditis, pericarditis;
- arterial hypertension.
Prevention of renal failure
Prophylaxis of renal failure should consist of a thorough examination of persons with hereditary nephropathy or chronic infectious inflammatory kidney pathology. When getting severe injuries, burns, after a toxic effect on the body, you need to contact the nearest medical facility as soon as possible.
Renal failure completely changes a person's life. This disease makes you reconsider past habits, change the diet, more responsibly approach your health. A lot depends on the behavior of the patient. Renal failure is not a verdict at all, even in the last stages of the pathology, when hemodialysis and surgical treatment are indicated. This disease requires timely treatment. This determines the prognosis and effectiveness of therapy. The desire of the patient himself to be cured, to live a full life, combined with a competently chosen medication can overcome renal failure or make it less pronounced and dangerous for life.
Symptoms and treatment of renal failure.