13Mar

Strabismus in children, newborns: causes, treatment, surgery

A scientific strabismus is called strabismus. This disease implies a violation of the coordinated work of the eye muscles, as a result of which the eyes look in different directions. Strabismus usually begins to develop in a child at 2-5 years of age, when the joint activity of the eyes is disturbed. Such a violation leads to the development of strabismus, if it was not diagnosed at the time and the necessary measures were not taken to eliminate it. The causes of child strabismus may be several. Rarely it is congenital( the main reason in this case is the abnormal development of the eye muscles).A child's strabismus can result from a mother's severe pregnancy or difficult births. If the child was born without a defect, the strabismus can develop at an older age, when the baby starts walking and talking. The reason for this can serve as brain diseases, mental development abnormalities, head trauma, infectious diseases: influenza, measles, diphtheria, scarlet fever and others.

Medical practice knows many cases when the strabismus arose in the child after severe fright. Failures in the operation of the eye muscles can also be a consequence of the development of other diseases of the organs of vision: myopia, astigmatism, farsightedness. In this case, strabismus is associated with a decreased vision of the squinting eye.

Strabismus is very easy to explain. In a person with the correct operation of the eye muscles, the eyes work synchronously, their axes are reduced to one point - an object, a person, etc. In the presence of strabismus, the eye visual axis does not have the possibility of convergence at one point. In this case, the violation of binocular vision. Incorrect functioning of even one eye muscle leads to a disruption in the perception of objects and to an incorrect arrangement of the pupils.

In medicine, there is the concept of the so-called "lazy eye".It implies suppression of the ability to see with a mowing eye. In a healthy person, both eyes see the same, and the brain gets a folded picture of the visible object. In children with strabismus, the brain is not able to reunite two pictures of the subject in one, because the eyes see differently.

As a result, the brain begins to perceive only one image obtained by a healthy eye. If this process is not stopped at the time, cure blindness of the mowing eye even after elimination of strabismus is almost impossible.

In newborns, strabismus can be detected already in the second week of life. To do this, it is necessary to carefully follow the reaction of the child to the object being moved before his eyes. Children who developed strabismus at an early age, as a rule, never complain to him, because they do not understand that the double image in the eyes is far from the norm.

All care for the health of the child falls on the shoulders of the parents, they should closely monitor its development and, if symptoms of strabismus are detected, sound an alarm. Fortunately, strabismus is quite easy to notice. One or both eyes of the child in this case deviate to the side, as if "floating", most often to the nose. If one of the parents or loved ones has noticed even a slight strabismus in the child, it should be immediately shown to the oculist.

Strabismus is dangerous in that it can lead to severe vision loss. And it looks from the outside is not aesthetically pleasing. An adult with a strabismus may experience psychological discomfort in communicating with peers.

There are about 20 types of strabismus, an accurate diagnosis can only be made by a specialist. Treatment of strabismus should be comprehensive. First of all, the doctor should conduct a full diagnosis of the child's vision and identify the reasons. If strabismus is associated with other diseases - hyperopia, myopia, a small patient is prescribed glasses. In some cases, glasses are able to completely rid of the disease.

As practice shows, wearing glasses alone is not enough. To eliminate the disease, conservative treatment with modern hardware methods should be prescribed. They allow you to restore the "bridges" between the eyes, that is, teach the child to see the same image with both eyes.

If there is evidence at a certain stage of treatment of child strobism, surgical intervention is used. This operation is performed on the eye muscles involved in the process of rotation of the eyeballs, and is aimed at restoring the muscular balance between them. After the operation, mandatory conservative treatment is required, aimed at rehabilitation of the functions of the organs of vision.

In this case, the child is taught to look in a new way with a sick eye, form his correct stereoscopic vision. To do this, on an outpatient basis, courses are conducted on special devices. Recovery after surgery can take a long time. Such courses should be conducted at least 3 times a year.

In case of congenital strabismus, surgical intervention is recommended not later than the child reaches the age of 3 years. Such an operation for an experienced specialist is not difficult, and modern methods allow it to be carried out without the use of cutting devices( a scalpel, laser, scissors), while the tissues of the eye are expanded by a special stream of radio waves. For the operation, anesthesia is used to completely relax the eye muscles. The operation itself lasts from 20 to 90 minutes.

A child can be discharged home two days after the event. Often in the postoperative period, the occlusion method is used, which consists in closing a healthy bandage with a special bandage. The child at the same time learns to see the patient, the transferred operation, the eye. The formation of the human visual apparatus ends in 18-20 years, therefore it is possible to treat strabismus precisely up to this age. In the complex treatment of the disease, complete elimination of strabismus occurs in 97% of cases.