21Feb

Stem Cells and Organ Cloning

The genetic engineering and restorative medicine have advanced far in advance, the success of which is that it became possible to restore the damaged organ with the help of cells of the same organism.

Contents

  • 1 Establishment of bioengineering bodies
  • 2 Obtaining stem cells
  • 3 Application in the
  • 4 clinic Printing organs with the

printer Establishment of bodies by the bioengineering method

The past 2013 was marked by the fact that several bodies were created using bioengineering technology using human cells. The organs made, however, do not work in the human body, but in the organisms of laboratory animals( mice and rats). In the process of this bioengineering miracle, scientists used the skeleton of the animal's organ, removed native cells from it and sowed it with human stem cells.

Such miracle organs include a bioengineered kidney, grown with the use of the renal carcass of a rat populated with epithelial cells from the human kidney. She was successfully implanted in the animal, and worked, performing the functions assigned to her: filtered the blood and excreted urine. Bioengineering also includes two grown up liver. The first of them was created from human stem cells, transplanted into the mouse's body and normally performs its functions in it. The second one was grown using fat cells obtained as a result of liposuction in humans. Also, lungs were created using fibroblasts from human skin( not yet tested in animals).Bioengineering method( cloning) reproduced even the heart( on the mouse frame, filled with human cells), which performs its function and beats. Human stem cells served as the basis for the reproduction of blood vessels of the circulatory system, working muscles. And the apotheosis of research was that the auricle of a man of natural size was grown. The organ was created from a frame made from cartilaginous tissue of a cow, and sown by human cells. Scientists could also create a semblance of the brain( prototype).More precisely, they were grown in a laboratory, in a Petri dish, using

brain stem cells , which later themselves formed something similar to the brain.

Obtaining stem cells

stem cells In this area( application of stem cells), another success of the scientist Shukhrat Mitalipov was noted, which was able to obtain human-embryonic stem cells in the laboratory by transplanting the nucleus from the somatic cell into the egg .This became for the cellular medicine a significant breakthrough, as it allowed to create stem cells, and not to try to extract them in all possible ways. This success Mitalipova was named by the journal Science as a scientific breakthrough of the year.

Application in the

clinic Although these technologies are still being improved in the laboratories, however, regenerative medicine has already made a step forward in the direction of clinics where it has been successfully used and with its help it is possible to save the lives of .Paolo Macchiarini in his hospital performs recovery operations on the trachea, and in 2013 for the first time the life of a child was saved with the help of bioengineering trachea. It was created on a special frame of material, thanks to which the trachea can lengthen with the growth of a small patient. Rejection was avoided because the was used for the child's stem cell transplant, so the organ transplanted was not perceived by the body as alien. In Russia, such operations are also conducted in the Center for Regenerative Medicine.

cell fence To the success in the practical application of stem cell technologies also include a unique case. German doctors were able to get the child out of a coma and vegetative existence, using cord blood stem cells .After their replanting in the state of the child, the positive dynamics appeared very quickly and began to grow, the patient was able to start walking and talking. Scientists explained this by the fact that the transplanted cells migrated to the brain, where they could replace the missing and damaged neurons.

Printing organs with the

printer However, the most incredible achievement in the field of restorative medicine is printing with a 3D bioprinter. Although whole and viable organs scientists can not yet create using this method, nevertheless, they have advanced considerably in this direction. For example, an important practical step and achievement of medicine was the printing of the bronchus to the child. During the operation, a fragment of the bronchus was used in the form of a tube made individually for this patient, his transplant was performed and successful engraftment. In Russia, in 2013, the first laboratory was created to study the technique of three-dimensional biopressing of organs. The goal of scientists, who headed it, was the cloning of the human kidney. The intermediate stage was called the creation of the nephron.