Clubfoot in children is a common disease of the musculoskeletal system, in which the child can not put the heel of one or both feet flat on the floor surface. If we consider this pathology from the anatomical position, the clubfoot is the acquired or congenital restriction of the joints of the joints, which results in a sharp disruption of the bone arrangement or the most complex changes in the muscle tissue. The disease manifests itself mainly in a bilateral form, and is diagnosed in boys much more often than in girls.
- 1 Types of clubfoot in children and its causes
- 2 Clubfoot symptoms in children
- 3 Clubfoot diagnosis
- 4 Treatment of clubfoot in children
Types of clubfoot in children and its causes
There are two main types of clubfoot in children: acquired and congenital. Congenital clubfoot is diagnosed right after the baby's appearance and, in the absence of full-fledged treatment, develops and progresses in the future. To date, several theories of intrauterine growth and clubfoot development have been singled out:
- neuromuscular theory - champions of this version suggest that congenital clubfoot in children is caused by pathologies in the development of the fetus;
- mechanical theory - the adherents of this version are convinced that the deformation of the foot or both feet is due to the increased pressure on them of the uterine walls( this effect can be observed with uterine narrowness, with malignancy or in the presence of uterine tumors);
- genetic theory - proponents of this version believe that clubfoot in newborn babies can be due only to heredity.
In turn, the acquired clubfoot in children is much less common than the congenital. The causes of its occurrence are:
- diseases of the nervous system;
- incorrect fusion of fractures of bones forming the ankle joint;
- dysplasia of leg and foot bones;
- severe burns;
- acute inflammatory processes;
- tumor processes and others.
Symptoms of clubfoot in children
The main signs of clubfeet in children are:
- turning the sole inside;
- lowering the outer edge of the foot and raising the inside;
- plantar inflection of the foot;
- explicit limitation of ankle mobility;
- Bringing the front of one or both feet;
- a kind of gait.
In the absence of timely, professional treatment of clubfoot in the child, the symptomatology of this disease can be supplemented by the appearance of subluxations of the foot bones, atrophy of the calf muscles, a violation of the natural functioning of the knee joints, and coarsening the skin on the outer edge of the affected foot.
Diagnostics of clubfoot
The diagnosis of clubfoot is most often established, relying on a typical clinical picture of the disease. However, at the same time, parents or a doctor should make sure that the clubfoot detected is not positional, but true, that is, due to pathologies in the development of the foot bones.
When the club foot is positioned, the child's foot is mobile and can be brought to a normal position. In the overwhelming majority of cases, this disease disappears on its own during the first month of life of the child and does not require targeted treatment.
If you detect symptoms of true clubfoot and make a proper diagnosis to your child, you should begin treatment as soon as possible: only in this case you can confidently rely on a favorable prognosis.
Treatment of clubfoot in children
Treatment of congenital clubfoot in children is performed by an orthopedist on an outpatient basis. Individual tactics of ongoing therapy are selected by the doctor depending on the severity and neglect of the pathology. Begin the treatment of clubfoot, revealed at the birth of the baby, it is necessary from the first weeks of his life: during this period the bones of his feet are extremely soft, so that the damaged limb can easily be brought to the correct position without surgery. In the process of elimination of clubfoot, the following methods are used in children:
- a long course of therapeutic massage;
- curative gymnastics;
- soft fixation of damaged limbs with special plaster boots, bandages, flannel bandages or specialized tires;
- paraffin applications;
- wearing tutors( specialized orthopedic devices fixing stops in the right position);
- wearing specialized orthopedic shoes.
In the diagnosis of severe, neglected forms of clubfeet in children or in the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment, surgical intervention is performed. Surgical correction of this pathology, including the plastic of the ligamentous apparatus, tendons and aponeuroses of the foot, is possible after the child reaches a year-old age. Meanwhile, with timely initiated and competent treatment, the prognosis, in the overwhelming majority of cases, is favorable.
Tactics of treatment of acquired clubfoot in children directly depends on the causes that caused it and on the form of the course of the underlying disease. In general, the doctor's actions should be aimed at preventing the fixation of the pathological position of one or both feet with the help of special linings, tires and physical exercises. In most cases, sick children are shown therapeutic exercises, massage and swimming. With fixed forms of flow of acquired clubfoot in children( for example, when this disease occurs as a result of trauma), surgical intervention is most often performed. In the case of a non-fixed form of the flow of this disease, the use of orthopedic footwear and to myoplastic operations is resorted. The prognosis for restoring the functions of the affected leg with acquired clubfoot is not always favorable.