Vaccination against influenza is used to prevent the spread of viruses in human communities. Vaccination against influenza is especially recommended in closed institutions, such as schools, kindergartens, supermarkets, hospitals. Correctly conducted vaccination against influenza prevents the spread of the virus, interrupts the chain of its transformation. As practice shows, if more than 40% of the team members received an inoculation against influenza, the number of cases among those not vaccinated does not exceed 10%.
The influenza virus is constantly changing, so every year a new vaccine is being developed. After its introduction the organism within two weeks develops protective antibodies which operate the whole year. If a person falls ill after the vaccination, then in this case the flu takes place in a lighter form.
Should I get a flu shot?Each person decides for himself whether to do an inoculation against the flu. This event is not mandatory. There are categories of people who need to be vaccinated in the first place:
- People over 60;
- Patients with chronic physical( not mental) diseases;
- Often ill with ARI;
- Preschool children and schoolchildren;
- Employees of medical institutions, employees of the service sector, transport, educational institutions.
Composition of the influenza vaccine
The inactivated( killed) influenza vaccine contains purified antigens( antibodies that are foreign to the body causing antibodies) from influenza A and B viruses.
The composition of the influenza vaccine for each morbidity season is determined by the World Health Organization), The European Community, the US Health Administration and Australia( there are usually differences in the annual composition for the northern and southern hemispheres).
How is vaccine safety achieved?
Vaccines are safe because they undergo multistage purification, they lack preservatives and mercury-containing substances. Therefore, vaccination can be given to children from the age of six months.
Prophylactic vaccination against influenza
It is optimal to administer the vaccine intramuscularly or subcutaneously( usually this method is used for patients who have problems with blood coagulability) before the start of the flu season. Preventive vaccinations against influenza are carried out annually.
As the structure of the influenza virus is constantly changing, vaccination should be carried out annually.
Children over 6 years of age and adults are given one dose, which contains 0.5 ml of the vaccine.
Infants and children under 6 years of age receive two doses of 0.25 ml of vaccine at intervals of 4 weeks( if the child was previously vaccinated, then it is sufficient to administer one dose containing 0.25 ml of the vaccine).
How does the body respond to vaccination?
Adverse reactions are extremely rare. A small group of people can blush and swell the place of vaccination, a little rise in temperature, there is a muscle pain. Unfavorable symptoms disappear themselves( usually 1-2 days).
Sometimes people who are prone to allergies have allergic reactions to individual components of the vaccine.
Contraindications for influenza vaccination
Vaccination against influenza can not be carried out at high temperature, nor should vaccination be given to people with increased sensitivity to the egg whites protein or other components of the vaccine. To avoid an anaphylactic( allergic) reaction, you need to be under medical supervision for 30 minutes after the introduction of the vaccine. There are specific contraindications for vaccination against influenza.
You can not get a flu shot if:
- A person suffers from an allergy to a hen's egg protein - in this case, the vaccine itself can cause an allergic reaction;
- There used to be severe reactions to similar inoculations;
- On the day of administration of the vaccine, there were signs of a cold or infectious disease;
- Chronic ailments have become aggravated - in this case it is necessary to wait until all the symptoms of the disease disappear.
Of course, there are other reasons for not having to be vaccinated, but this is already decided by the doctor individually.
Response to Inoculation with
Local reactions to vaccination usually occur in the area of grafting: redness, small swelling, heaviness at the site of injection. There are adverse symptoms for 1 -2 days after vaccination and after 2-3 days completely pass.
General reactions - a small( up to 38 ° C) fever, decreased appetite, malaise. Do not be scared: it means that the vaccine "works".
But if the temperature rises to 38.5 ° C or more, there is a feeling of weakness and weakness, pronounced swelling, pain, suppuration at the injection site, then this is a deviation from the norm. In such a case, you should definitely consult a doctor.
Vaccines for the prevention of influenza
Various vaccines are currently used to prevent influenza. Each vaccine has its own advantages. The most affordable is the domestic vaccine "Grippol".It provides effective protection against the virus. It is made free of charge for children in schools, kindergartens, etc.
Imported vaccines are subjected to more complex multi-stage cleaning. Therefore, adverse reactions( fever, malaise, headache, redness, rash) occur less.
The names of the influenza vaccine
The names of the flu vaccine may not be familiar to you. Producers annually produce new series of preventive drugs. It is best to consult a physician with an infectious disease specialist or a therapist before vaccination.
Inactivated( nonliving) vaccines( influenza, agrypal) contain surface antigens( particles that promote the production of antibodies) of the influenza virus. Protection at the same time will be somewhat lower, but the safety of vaccination is greater. Such vaccines can be administered even to pregnant and breastfeeding women. Children inactivated vaccines can be administered starting from 6 months.
Split vaccines( vaxigrip, whig, fluaurix) contain particles of a destroyed virus, and are quite effective and safe. Due to the high purity in the split vaccines, there are no viral lipids and proteins of the chicken embryo.