An integral part of our respiratory system is the bronchi - the tubes that connect the trachea and lung tissue. There are two main bronchi, but each of them forms a considerable network of various tubes and tubes( these are the bronchi and bronchioles).It is through these tubes that air enters the lung tissue. Under certain circumstances, the bronchi begin to become inflamed or give off an abundant amount of mucus. So there is bronchitis. Treatment of bronchitis in adults depends on what kind of cause triggered the development of the disease.
Often the cause of bronchitis are viruses, and from the same group as those that provoke the flu and ARI.In addition, bronchitis can be the result of any secondary bacterial infection. In some cases, the onset of the disease is due to the inhalation of substances that cause irritation of the lungs. These substances include: ammonia, various chemicals, smoke and dust.
In children, the treatment of bronchitis will have its own characteristics, which is due to the very specifics of their body. On how to treat bronchitis, and also what is the difference between treating an adult and a child, we'll talk about this article. But first let's look at the types of the disease and the main symptoms, in the presence of which you can talk about bronchitis.
Table of contents:
- Types of bronchitis
- Symptoms of the disease
- General characteristics of bronchitis treatment
- Treatment with antibiotics
- Other medicines. Inhalations
- Folk methods
Varieties of bronchitis
Isolation of specific types of bronchitis is possible in view of the form and specificity of the disease. Species, in turn, affect the specific method of treatment. So, there is:
- Acute bronchitis .Its cause is the influence of viral or bacterial infections. This bronchitis is characterized by acute inflammation of the upper layers of the bronchi. The disease lasts several weeks;
- Asthmatic bronchitis ( or acute obstructive).It is characterized by the presence of a specific complication - obstruction. It manifests itself in the fact that the tone of the muscles in the small bronchi considerably increases. Also, there is swelling of the mucosa, which leads to abundant discharge of mucus. Ultimately, the permeability of blood vessels is significantly reduced;
- Chronic bronchitis .The asthmatic form of the disease can change into a chronic one if the treatment is not timely provided. As a result, there is a persistent cough, shortness of breath. Chronic bronchitis can occur and, as a result, the influence of factors such as tobacco smoke and dust;
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease .This is not bronchitis, but the next form. As a result, such a disease leads to a significant limitation of patient performance, in some cases - to their disability. Perhaps the development of emphysema;
- Allergic bronchitis .This species is always allocated separately. As follows from the name, such bronchitis develops due to the adverse effect of any allergen on the human body, predisposed to an allergic reaction.
Symptoms of the disease
At the first stages of the development of bronchitis, its signs are very similar to the usual cold disease. By the way, in some cases, bronchitis acts as a cold accompanying a cold.
The following symptoms of bronchitis in adults can be distinguished:
- First of all, we note that there may be a sore throat and dry cough;
- No less common symptom is also general fatigue in the body. At the same time, the patient has watery eyes, a low temperature and an unpleasant headache.
There are such symptoms, as a rule, not more than 2 weeks, as they are typical for acute bronchitis;
- Quite often, patients feel that they have difficulty breathing. Some also experience a feeling of restraint( in rare cases, even pain) in the chest.
It is very important to pay attention to the described symptoms. If in the first stages of a dry cough or cough with the release of mucus can go by itself, without taking medications, then later stages require the help of a specialist. When do you need a doctor?
- If the temperature has risen to 40 degrees and above;
- If a thick mucus is coughing up during a cough and blood is noticeable;
- If symptoms persist for 20 days or more.
The above description is typical for adult patients, while in children the specificity manifests itself with symptoms. Often the following picture is observed: the baby was literally healthy yesterday, there were no signs. But today the child has a fever, cough and snot. In addition, parents begin to notice that the baby with each breath and exhale wheeze, and the sound of these wheezing and gurgling wet. The child himself is noticeably weakened and looks very sluggish.
These are the symptoms of obstructive bronchitis in children. In such cases it is necessary to call a doctor who, after examining the child, will express his opinion about the presence or absence of bronchitis. The fact is that such signs are also characteristic of rhinopharyngitis, i.e.for inflammation of the pharynx and mucous membrane.
However, for children, a different picture of the course of the disease is characteristic: at first - a slight increase in temperature( maximum, 37.5? C), or even the temperature is normal. Instead of a damp cough, there may be something that looks more like a kid choking. There is no sputum. In this case, we should talk about atypical bronchitis, the occurrence of which provokes mycoplasma or chlamydia. True, such diseases are rare.
General characteristic of bronchitis
treatment As the main factor provoking the disease is a viral infection, then for treatment, primarily antiviral agents are used.
In cases where the cause of bronchitis is a bacterial infection, antibiotics are prescribed for use. Doctors also pay attention to drugs with bronchodilator action, as well as drugs that have mucolytic and expectorant action.
An important step in the course of treatment is a complete cessation of smoking. Instead, you should spend more time outdoors, avoid fatigue, eat properly and fully, and take multivitamin complexes that will recover as quickly as possible.
Treatment with antibiotics
In general, the question of the use of antibiotics in the treatment of bronchitis today is quite complicated. The fact is that the presence of a bacterial infection must be fully substantiated, which will allow us to prescribe an antibiotic. If you choose an antibiotic arbitrarily and begin its application, then the following adverse effects are possible:
- Dysbacteriosis will begin;
- Allergic reactions occur;
- The resistance of microorganisms to a specific antibiotic will be formed.
To properly select antibiotics, it is necessary to sow sputum. Only in this way will it be possible to establish a specific pathogen, which became the cause of bronchitis. In addition, the crop allows you to determine whether the detected microorganism is sensitive to antibiotics.
If you do not sow, then you have to select an antibiotic empirically and subsequently observe what changes occur in the patient's condition.
But it should be borne in mind that the abuse of antibiotics is unacceptable, especially if we talk about their preventive use. In such cases, it is possible to develop allergies, gastrointestinal disorders, etc. Moreover, many antibiotics in the composition have components that can weaken the immune system.
Separately it is necessary to talk about the use of antibiotics during the treatment of bronchitis in children. The fact is that under certain conditions, taking antibiotics is not just undesirable, but also contraindicated.
To begin treatment of bronchitis with antibiotics against a child, it is possible only if:
- It is precisely established that the cause of bronchitis is a bacterial infection;
- The evidence indicates an aggravation of the situation;
- The doctor himself strongly recommends an antibiotic.
Other medications. Inhalation
When appointing other drugs( other than antibiotics), doctors take into account which patient is in front of them. In the case of an adult, the remedy is selected taking into account general contraindications and possible individual intolerance. With children all is a little different: at them the treatment of an acute bronchitis is quite possible and without preparations from a cough. Moreover, children under 2 years of age are not prescribed mucolytics at all, since the pectoral muscles of children are still too weak to cope with the task of "coughing up" an abundant amount of mucus.
To help cough tablets, it is necessary to resort when:
- The child has obstructive bronchitis. In this case, those medicines are prescribed, the action of which will increase the clearance of the bronchi;
- The kid has a serious lung disease( he has abnormalities of development, the body lacks enzymes that can dilute mucus);
- Diseases are severe. Then mucolytics are appointed, but the course of their application should be short. As additional funds, funds are used that make it easier to cough. Also percussion massage is performed.
As for inhalation, they are used widely enough. Possible variants are diverse: the basis can be saline, essential oil, mineral water or a special remedy.
Allowed and treatment of bronchitis folk ways. Within the framework of one article, it is impossible to describe the whole variety of existing prescriptions for the preparation of effective remedies for the elimination of bronchitis. Therefore, we will consider several of the most popular and universal( suitable for adults and children) recipes. Let's start with potatoes.
Treatment of chronic bronchitis, as well as other forms of it, has long been carried out through conventional potatoes. The technique is statistically interesting, and we will describe it in detail:
- First you just need to boil potatoes in a uniform. It will take 5-6 potatoes of medium size( if you treat a child, then less).At the end of cooking it will be necessary to drain the water and crush all the potatoes;
- After that, the patient will have to cover the veil directly over the pan with the resulting mashed potatoes and begin to breathe in pairs. The duration of the procedure is about 10 minutes;
- Upon completion, you need to pack the patient, and distribute the potatoes equally in two plastic bags. Then it should be given pouches of potatoes with the shape of cakes;
- One of the packages-flat cakes put on the chest, and the second - on the back. Potatoes can be too hot, then a thin towel can be placed between the sachet and the body. It is important that the patient stay with these "cakes" all night.
It is obvious that only potatoes, the possible variants of folk treatment of bronchitis are not exhausted. For example, there is also such an effective tool as a decoction of nasturtium.
You can prepare it in the following way:
- Pour one tablespoon of ground nasturtium stems with hot water( one glass is needed);
- Leave the plant in water for 20 minutes and then cool;
- If necessary, add the boiled water to the glass.
Ready-to-cook broth should be eaten three times a day for one-quarter cup immediately before meals.
You can also use cranberries. This berry is very well established due to its useful properties. To cure bronchitis, cranberries need to be poured with boiled water, and then sweeten with a small amount of sugar. Such a product is stored in the refrigerator, but before using it is necessary to wait until it gets a room temperature.
Finally, you can use the sage:
- Boil the milk( one glass), after adding a spoon( table) of sage into it;
- Leave the product until it cools, then strain;
- Milk boil again.
Drink this remedy every day at night in a warm form.
As we see, the treatment of bronchitis in children and adults is based on general principles, although it has some differences. It is important only in time to begin this very treatment, especially if it is a child.
- Sore throat treatment
- Intestinal flu symptoms and treatment in children
- Cessation of smoking by day