The liver is located in the abdominal cavity and fulfills the vital functions of the unpaired human organ. Our liver participates in the process of digesting food, regulating the metabolism of carbohydrates, synthesizing cholesterol, neutralizing toxins and allergens that enter the body, etc. The presence of liver pathology negatively affects the performance of its basic functions, as a result of which many systems of the body suffer. Diseases of the liver are very dangerous and often lead to death. The most common of them are: hepatitis, polycystosis, liver cirrhosis, amyloidosis, hepatic vein thrombosis, opisthorchiasis.
- 1 Hepatitis
- 2 Polycystic
- 3 Cirrhosis
- 4 Amyloidosis
- 5 Hepatic venous thrombosis
- 6 Opisthorchias
Hepatitis is commonly referred to as a group of diseases affecting the human liver. The causative agent of any type of hepatitis is a virus that enters the body by the way of life or sexually. Hepatitis A is mainly transmitted through water, as well as non-compliance with hygiene standards. Its main symptoms: nausea, yellowing of the skin, severe heat, loss of appetite, aching muscles. There is no special vaccine against this type of hepatitis. The disease is treated with anesthetics and antipyretic drugs.
Hepatitis A is fatal, but cases of its degeneration into liver cancer are not fixed.
Hepatitis B is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person through the fluids contained in the body, develops very slowly and leads to inflammation of the liver and disruption of its basic functions. Typical symptoms are: yellowing of skin and mucous membranes, skin rashes, stomach colic, general malaise. In case of a disease, a specialist prescribes taking Interferon, bed rest, a diet. Chronic form of hepatitis B leads to cirrhosis of the liver.
Hepatitis C infection occurs most often at the time of blood transfusion. This type of disease leads to irreversible processes of destruction of the liver. It is impossible to determine the presence of hepatitis C at the initial stage of infection, as its signs are completely absent. Problems with digestion of food, joint pains, frequent rhinitis may indicate an infection several months ago. In most cases, the drug Interferon is prescribed for the treatment of hepatitis C, vitamin supplements are used as auxiliary ones.
Polycystic is the formation of multiple cysts in the liver cavity. This disease leads to an increase in the liver in size, as a result of which it begins to squeeze the nearby internal organs. The main functions of the liver are disturbed. Recognize the presence of cysts for a number of signs: the body itself becomes hard to touch, the patient suffers frequent heartburn, his abdominal cavity increases in size. In the late stages of polycystic development, shortness of breath, swelling of the lower extremities, yellowing of the skin is noted. The main goal of treating the disease is to stop or slow the growth of the cyst. In advanced cases of the disease, a liver transplant or a resection may be necessary to save the patient. The usual removal of cysts in this case is ineffective. Polycystic can lead to liver cancer.
Cirrhosis of the liver
Cirrhosis is a disease that results in replacement of healthy liver cells with a fibrous connective tissue. Most often, cirrhosis arises as a complication of any pathology of this organ. The disease is chronic and may not manifest itself for several years. Characteristic symptoms of cirrhosis are: lack of appetite, jaundice, skin itching, nausea. On the patient's body, blood stains and bruises can also appear for no apparent reason. Often, the process of destruction of the liver is accompanied by the accumulation of fluid from the abdominal cavity or ascites, as well as internal bleeding. The main sign of such bleeding is vomiting with an admixture of blood, loss of consciousness. This condition requires compulsory medical care. The destruction of the liver leads to the accumulation of toxins in the human body, resulting in the development of hepatic encephalopathy - a condition leading to a disruption of the main function of the brain.
In most cases, cirrhosis and its complications result in the death of the patient. The main goal of treating the disease is to prevent its further development with the help of special medications and a balanced diet. In case of complete damage to the liver, an organ transplant may be necessary to save the patient. This procedure is very expensive, but it can save the life of a practically hopeless patient.
Amyloidosis is a systemic disease that affects the internal organs of a person, most often the kidneys, liver, spleen. For this pathology is characterized by a violation in the body of protein metabolism, which leads to the formation and accumulation in its individual organs and tissues of amyloids - complex complexes that contain proteins and polysaccharides. The accumulation of these substances in the liver cells inevitably leads to their destruction. It should be said that people at risk of developing the disease who reached the retirement age. As a result of the progression of amyloidosis, the patient's liver gradually becomes denser and increases in size. In this case there are no pain sensations. In some cases, minimal yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes, increased cholesterol levels in the blood, skin itching.
For the treatment of patients with the initial stage of amyloidosis, liver hydrolysates, colchicine, and plaquenyl are actively used. With a timely request to the doctor, the prognosis is favorable. Amyloidosis is never transformed into a malignant tumor.
Hepatic venous thrombosis
Hepatic venous thrombosis is a pathology that occurs against the background of an existing liver or other internal organ disease and is characterized by a complete or partial overlap of the lumen of the vessel with a formed thrombus. In rare cases, thrombosis develops as an independent disease, then the cause of its occurrence can not be established. Characteristic signs of blockage of the veins of the liver: accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity( ascites), pain in the right side, enlargement of the liver in size. In some cases of thrombosis, yellowing of the outer skin of the skin and mucous membranes, the opening of internal bleeding. In the latter case, the patient is immediately hospitalized. He was shown intravenous infusion of the drug Heparin. The dose of all medicines is selected based on the general condition of the patient. On the third day of treatment, Heparin is replaced by an anticoagulant of indirect action. Contraindication to their use is: drug intolerance, operation, severe internal bleeding.
Opisthorchiasis is a parasitic disease caused by a specific microorganism - a cat litter and damaging the organs of the human digestive system. The main way of getting the pathogen into the human body is food( the use of certain types of fish in poorly fried or slightly salted form).The source of infection by a parasite is a sick person who secretes its larvae into the environment together with feces. Further, the larvae of the fluke enter the reservoirs, where they pass a certain evolutionary path and find themselves in the body of the fish. Compliance with the norms of cooking fish makes it quite safe and suitable for consumption. Otherwise, the larva retains its viability and, getting into the human body, reaches the liver, begins to actively multiply and release toxins.
The first signs of infection are fever and muscle weakness. After 14 days from the onset of the disease, vomiting, softening of the stool, skin rashes, heaviness in the liver, its soreness, jaundice may appear.
The antihelminthic drugs used to treat opisthorchiasis include praziquantel, albendazole. These drugs have an extensive list of side effects, so they should only be taken as prescribed by the doctor. The severe course of opisthorchiasis is treated permanently. In other cases, the patient is at home and visits the doctor at the time specified by him or as needed. Mortality from opisthorchiasis is extremely low, but the disease should not be started, because its chronic course leads to such severe consequences as hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma of the liver.