Adenoids are a large accumulation of lymphoid tissue that is located in the nasopharynx. Normally, they are present in all people and perform certain functions, which include the production of cells of the immune system - lymphocytes, and directly the implementation of immune defense. The problem comes when the adenoids either grow large or inflame. In the first case, we are talking about hypertrophy of adenoids, and in the second case of adenoiditis.
- 1 Causes of pathology in the pharyngeal tonsils
- 2 Treatment of adenoids in children
- 2.1 Conservative
- 2.2 Surgical
Causes of a pathology in the pharyngeal tonsil
- caused by a child during childbirth or asphyxia
- of the mother of a viral etiology. This especially applies to the first 7-9 weeks of pregnancy.
- intake of a pregnant woman throughout the term of any medication that has a particular toxicity, and antibiotics
- lymphatics. In another way is called lymphatic diathesis. The presence of this pathology suggests a predisposition of the child to the fact that he may have violations in the immune system.
- frequent viral infections
- infectiousness of adenoids pathological microflora
- adverse environmental conditions
Special attention will be paid to hypertrophy of the tonsils. There are three degrees of the disease. At the first degree, discomfort is observed only during sleep. At night, breathing is difficult. Day such violations are not observed. At the second degree during a dream the child is observed snoring. Breathing through the nose during the day is difficult, as a result of which the child very often breathes his mouth. In the third stage, breathing through the nose is impossible because the lymphoid tissue completely closes the air inlet through the nose.
Expert opinion: Apparently, the author had in mind not hypertrophy of the tonsils, but hypertrophy of the adenoids. At the second stage, the child's breathing is not increased. It's just hard for him to breathe with his mouth.
Thus, the main symptoms of the disease will be as follows:
- difficulty breathing through the nose. It has its own peculiarities, depending on the stage of the process( it was mentioned above)
- the so-called obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, which will observe snoring in the child and holding the breath at night, when the child sleeps
- because of the "Often developing otitis may be a hearing disorder
- cough that is worse in the morning. It occurs as a result of the slime flowing down the back wall of the pharynx
- there may be a change in voice, namely, a change in the timbre. As a result, some nasal
- will be heard. Fast fatigue, drowsiness. Such children are irritable, always dissatisfied with something. They have reduced attention, memory
- Changes in the structure of the skeleton of the face will be observed. Most often the child will have an indifferent facial expression in combination with the constantly open mouth
- frequent inflammation of the nose, pharynx, larynx, sinuses near the nose, lower respiratory tract.
There are several ways to diagnose a disease. First, with a normal examination of the nasopharynx. If this is difficult, then the nasal passages, the oropharynx, the mucous membrane of the pharynx, the ears are inspected. Based on these examinations make a conclusion about the condition of the tonsils.
Secondly, endoscopic examination of the nasopharynx. A study is performed using a rhinoscope, which is inserted into the nasal cavity. This method has several advantages. This includes information, the possibility of photography and video shooting, harmlessness. Thirdly, this is an x-ray study. But in this case it must be remembered that each such study has a certain radiation load.
Treatment of adenoids in children
Treatment of the disease depends on the stage of the process. It can be conservative or operational.
Is a priority in our time. It is a complex of various medications and physical therapy procedures. It should be noted that along with other medicines, immunostimulants are also used.
Expert opinion: Regarding the priority of conservative treatment, one can argue. There are different opinions of specialists in otorhinolaryngology. Some advocate the removal of adenoids without treatment, if these formations make breathing and life difficult for a small patient. Others try to treat the child for some time with medications, which can also be justified.
It is also important to remember that it is necessary to constantly remove the discharge from the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx. Otherwise, the effect of the treatment will be significantly reduced.
Nowadays laser therapy is widely used. There are advantages here. These include the safety of the method, a positive effect on the lymphoid tissue. As a result of the use of laser therapy, the edema decreases, the inflammation is removed, the immunity is increased locally. The laser therapy course consists of six to eight sessions. Already after the first session, free breathing through the nose is restored in almost a hundred percent of children. And, by the way, this technique can be used regardless of the stage of the disease.
Homeopathic remedies can also be used as auxiliaries.
This type of treatment is performed if conservative treatment has not yielded results if there is persistent disruption of breathing through the nose, complicated by very frequent colds, if there are paranasal sinuses) if there is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
The operation to remove adenoids is called adenotomy. It can be performed both under local anesthesia and under general anesthesia. The control is carried out endovideososcopically. As a rule, it is better to carry out the operation under local anesthesia. It will be quick, effective, painless, bleeding will be negligible. If the adenoids are located near the nasal tubes in the nasopharynx, then it is better to perform the operation under general anesthesia. This also applies to cases in which the child is hyperexcitated.
In any case, it should be remembered that before surgery, first you need to cure inflammation. Otherwise, there may be various complications in the postoperative period due to the fact that the entire focus of inflammation can not be managed.
Sometimes, after surgery, the lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx again grows and grows. In this case, the operation should be repeated.