Infectious disease of dysentery is not uncommon among the modern community of people. The main source of contamination is food and water. Not infrequently, infection occurs because of non-compliance with personal hygiene. We bring to your attention the material, which tells about the symptoms and treatment of dysentery.
Dysentery is an infection of
Many people know that dysentery is a disease of dirty hands. However, strangely enough, this infection is often picked up even by those people who carefully observe the rules of hygiene.
The causative agent of dysentery is shigella
The causative agent of dysentery is the shigella stick, therefore the ailment has the second name - shigellosis. These bacteria are quite stable in the environment: during 5-14 days they can live in stagnant water bodies, food products, dishes and other items. In dark, moist, cool soils, pathogens of dysentery can last up to 3 months.
The causative agent of dysentery - Shigella does not tolerate heating: at a temperature of 60 ° C they die after 10 minutes, and at 100 ° C - instantly. Under direct sunlight, these microbes can be no more than 30 minutes.
Infection with dysentery
You can get infected only by swallowing bacteria. For example, having drunk unboiled water or milk, having eaten unwashed fruits or vegetables, using someone else's dishes or a toothbrush. It's enough to hold on to the rail in the bus, do not wash your hands after that and start eating lunch. After this, infection with dysentery may occur.
The main source of infection is a sick person. The most contagious are patients who lie in a hospital with a severe and moderate dysentery.
Dysentery causesinfection However, people who are healthy-looking people, so-called carriers, who have been ill at home in mild form, can spread the shigella and now think that they are absolutely healthy. They go to work, to canteens, shops, go public transport and do not even suspect that they are dangerous to others. Dysentery causes any contact with the carrier of the infection.
Why does the carrier not fall ill? Its immunity inhibits the growth of bacteria, but it is not able to defeat them definitively. In addition, shigella can be weakened by treatment.
How can I get dysentery? Many do not understand how you can get infected with dysentery in your family. People living in the same apartment can easily infect each other. For example, if the family does not take care to follow the rules of hygiene. By the way, another important vector of infection is flies and cockroaches. They leave the bacteria on the bread, fruits and other food stored openly.
Pathways of infection with dysentery
The only ways to infect dysentery are enteral. The agent enters the body only through the mouth. What time of the year does dysentery "prefer" most? Summer-autumn period. The bacterium itself is cold to the cold, however at this time, summer residents gather on their gardens vegetable crops and eat fruits directly from the garden. In addition, in the summer heat people have to drink more. Many take water from wells, wells, springs and so-called holy springs. I want to especially note: in holy sources shigella feels no worse than in any other. Also, people often become infected by swallowing water while swimming in lakes and ponds.
Who can be referred to a risk group? Preschool children - they wash their hands less often, and they pull anything into their mouths. And often elderly people and patients with weakened immunity or concomitant diseases are ill.
What happens in the body when shigella gets into it? The bacteria themselves are practically immobile - they move along the gastrointestinal tract along with the food. Some of the pathogens die in the aggressive environment of the stomach and small intestine, the rest safely "reach" to the large intestine and take root there. Microbes begin to multiply rapidly and release toxins.
Incubation period of dysentery
The incubation period of dysentery is very small: from several hours to 3 days. The patient's appetite disappears, the body temperature rises, pains appear in the lower abdomen, the skin turns pale, pressure falls, the pulse becomes faster, convulsions appear.
Symptoms of dysenterySymptoms of dysentery may be different, but mostly it is a disorder of stool and vomiting. When palpation is felt spasmodic( tense and often painful) sigmoid colon. The stool is thin, lean, with an admixture of blood. A characteristic sign of dysentery is a false urge to go to the toilet. They appear due to the fact that the bacteria irritate the special receptors in the large intestine.
The shigella can not enter the blood, but they produce toxins that are carried by the blood stream to all organs. Iz-for it at a dysentery the joints and a head sometimes start to hurt or be ill; be sick, escalating accompanying chronic diseases, first of all illnesses of a gastrointestinal tract are aggravated.
Symptoms of dysentery
In rare cases, dysentery proceeds in gastroenteric forms similar to salmonellosis. Then the patient has specific signs of dysentery, such as nausea, watery stools, pain throughout the abdomen. If you do not consult a doctor on time, severe toxic shock can develop in severe cases.
How is the patient examined with suspicion of dysentery? The infectiologist first finds out whether the patient or his loved ones was sick with something similar before. He asks when and how the first symptoms of ailment appeared, what the patient ate and drank in recent days, whether he observes the rules of hygiene, where the abdomen, the character of the stool, hurts.
After the medical history is collected, the doctor examines the patient: conducts palpation of the abdomen, looks at the skin condition, measures the pressure and body temperature.
If nausea and vomiting is painful, the patient is washed with a stomach. Then urine, feces, rinsing water and blood are examined.
The help in diagnostics is rendered by a sigmoidoscopy: in a thick gut enter a tube with the probe on the end and examine its walls. With dysentery marked redness, swelling, smoothness of the vascular pattern of the mucosa. In severe cases, ulcers can occur.
How to treat dysentery?
Before treating dysentery, it is necessary to exclude other pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. To treat patients with dysentery, we begin even before the tests are ready, since a preliminary diagnosis can be made by the first examination. In the early days, if there is dehydration, give special solutions that restore the water-salt balance( rehydron, hydrovit).If, due to nausea, the patient can not drink, then put a dropper with identical drugs. Although, of course, it is better to take saline solutions orally - so they will act much faster.
Treatment of dysentery
For the treatment of dysentery, antibacterial drugs are generally prescribed. For example, furazolidone is not only effective against shigella, but unlike antibiotics it does not cause dysbacteriosis. Dosage for adults - 2 tablets 4 times a day after meals. In severe cases, when the patient experiences vomiting and severe dehydration, intramuscular injection of fluoroquinolone antibiotics is administered.
Can I treat dysentery at home? This is only allowed under the supervision of a doctor. But I still would recommend staying in hospital for the duration of treatment. The fact is that the patient is the source of infection and can infect others. In addition, it is often difficult for patients to force themselves to take medicine and food at strictly defined times, and also to follow a diet. And in the hospital he will be under the supervision of qualified specialists.
How long should the patient stay in the hospital? With proper treatment, patients completely recover after 7-10 days. Some more time will be needed to restore the normal operation of the intestine. In severe cases, patients can spend up to 2 weeks in a hospital.
What should the recovered person remember? On the fact that you must follow a strict diet( diet table number 4), eat by the clock, take vitamins, antispasmodics, drugs with bifidobacteria to restore microflora and enzymes( festal, creon).
Is self-healing possible? It happens. In mild cases, patients confuse malaise with usual poisoning and lie at home. However, in this case, the carrier can develop, that is, the person will remain contagious.
How not to become a carrier?
To do this, you need to consult a doctor on time and strictly follow the prescribed course of treatment. Often, carriage is formed if the patient is not treated. But sometimes it happens and so that the analysis shows a negative result, and the person becomes infectious at the same time. The negative result of bacteriological studies does not always indicate the absence of pathogens in the body.
Do patients suffer from dysentery several times? Of course! They leave the hospital voluntarily, they are not cured, and as a result, the disease returns.
Are vaccinations against this infection? No effective vaccines exist. And the immunity of a sick person is formed for a short time.
Measures for the prevention of dysentery
Measures for the prevention of dysentery include a number of activities. First of all, it is necessary to follow the rules of hygiene: regularly and thoroughly wash hands, vegetables and fruits, drink only boiled water, do not eat anything from the garden, never try products on the market, buy patties on the street, cut watermelons, store food in closed form.
Dysentery is known since ancient times. There are even descriptions of epidemics that raged in the Middle Ages. The very term "dysentery" was introduced by Hippocrates.prevention of dysentery is also known since ancient times.
The causative agents of the disease are dysenteric bacteria - small mobile rods( 1-3 μm in size).They have rounded ends, are well dyed with aniline paints, gram-negative and grow on normal nutrient media.
Dysentery sticks quickly die in sunlight, when dried, at high temperature, under the influence of disinfectants. These bacteria can last several months in the external environment at low temperature and high humidity.