My stomach rumbles. .. Well, while the intestines simply make unpleasant sounds, but it does not hurt! Through these 12-13 meters - this is the length of the intestine in an adult - food, medicines, water passes. The balance was broken, inflammation started, diarrhea and life becomes sad!
Do not think that inflammation of the intestine is shameful or disgusting. This part of our body is no different from ears, noses and eyes. But its value is great! Therefore, there were symptoms of the inflammatory process in any part of the intestine - legs in the arms and forward to an appointment with the gastroenterologist!
- 1 Intestine - little human anatomy
- 2 Causes of inflammatory process in the intestine
- 3 Classification of inflammatory processes in the intestine
- 4 Duodenitis - symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
- 5 Enteritis - causes, symptoms, treatment
- 6 Colitis - symptomatology, diagnosis, treatment tactic
Intestine - littlehuman anatomy
Intestine is the compound name of several departments of the gastrointestinal tracttract. It consists of a thick, small intestine and duodenum. Each site has its own subspecies. The task of the intestines is to split incoming food and other substances into the smallest elements.
This is due to digestive enzymes. Bowel diseases adversely affect the condition of the entire human body and do not depend on age or gender. Inflammation of the intestine is also a collective concept. The location of the pathological process directly affects the diagnosis, symptoms and treatment of the patient.
Causes of the inflammatory process in the intestine
The digestive system is very vulnerable. All the reasons contributing to pathological processes in the intestine can be divided into the following groups:
- Bacterial infection - defeat by various microorganisms - intestinal bacillus, salmonella, shigella, viruses, protozoa.
- Clover infestation - pinworms, roundworms, bovine or porcine tapeworm and others.
- Autoimmune diseases - the body begins to perceive itself as an enemy. The immune system is trying to cope with the problem, that is, trying to protect the person from himself.
- An hereditary factor is a variety of genetic pathologies that are transmitted from parents to children.
- Violation of the regime and quality of nutrition is the abuse of fatty, heavy, fried food, spicy and burning spices, poor-quality products, alcohol, cigarettes. Even banal overeating can cause inflammation in any part of the intestine.
- Disturbance of blood circulation in intestinal vessels.
- Change in microflora - occurs when conditionally pathogenic organisms begin to prevail over beneficial intestinal dwellers.
The essence of the inflammatory process in the gastrointestinal system is a mucosal disruption and as a consequence, a violation of the absorption of nutrients in this area.
And what products are dangerous for the intestines, will tell the video:
Classification of inflammatory processes in the intestine
All diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are directly related to the locations and duration of the process. Classification by location:
- Duodenitis - an inflammatory process occurs in the duodenum - the beginning of the small intestine
- Enteritis - the small intestine is captured in a restricted area or over the entire duration of the
- Colitis - the large intestine is involved in the inflammatory process along its entire length
The duration of the process is as follows:
- Acute inflammation - lasts no more than 4 weeks
- Chronic4 weeks or more due to illness
- Infectious processes - the causative agent is infection, bacteria, viruses, fungi
- Non-infectious - any other reasons - autoimmune, genetic, intoxication, violation of diet and nutritional status
All inflammatory bowel diseases differ in symptoms, methods of diagnosis, tactics and treatment strategy. Let's consider each group in more detail.
Duodenitis - symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
Duodenum is a small bowel area from 12 to 15 cm in length. It contains ducts from the gallbladder and pancreas. Actually "duoden" in Latin means "duodenum", and the suffix "it" indicates an inflammatory process. The causes of this disease:
- Infections - first place belongs Helikobakteru Pilori
- Stressful situations - there is spasmodic vesicles, blood circulation in the organ decreases. There is a decrease in immunity and an inflammatory process occurs
- Unbalanced diet, eating disorder - prolonged fasting is replaced by an overabundance of food
- Bad habits - alcohol, smoking
- Eating before going to bed - you need to forget about night raids on the refrigerator
- Hereditary factor
- Medication defeat
Symptoms of duodenitis:
- Pain in epigastrium
- Dyspeptic phenomenon - nausea, vomiting, bloating, constipation or diarrhea.
- General intoxicationand - weakness, mild fever, poor appetite, weight loss
diagnosis is established by means fibrogastroscopy - endoscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Therapeutic tactics for inflammation of the duodenum:
- Antibiotics - when an infection is detected
- Diet №1 for Pevzner - balanced nutrition
- Spasmolytics for the reduction of the pain syndrome
Treatment of the inflammatory process in the duodenum is prolonged. Recommendations for the regime and quality of nutrition will have to be observed for the rest of your life.
Enteritis - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment
Enteritis is a pathological process in the small intestine. In this case, the absorption of nutrients, the processes of secretion of intestinal juice, the protective functions of the intestinal wall are impaired. The causes of this disease:
- viruses Toxic damage - poisons, drugs, fungi, alcohol, heavy metals, household and other chemicals
- Incorrect and unbalanced nutrition
- Clover invasion - lamblia, ascarids
- Hereditary and autoimmune diseases
- Surgical intervention onsmall intestine
- Adhesive process, peritoneal injury
- Sedentary lifestyle
The main symptomatology of acute enteritis:
- Frequent bowel movement - up to 10 times or more per day
- Epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting
- General intoxication of the body
- Temperature rise to critical values
- Degradation of the tongue
- Dehydration, convulsions, dry skin
- With prolonged andsevere course - up to the shock state
Symptoms of chronic enteritis differ from acute process:
- Diarrhea that occurs after eating
- Pain syndrome is mildly expressed
- Changeappearance of the appearance and composition of feces - wateriness, impurities, undigested food particles
- Initial stages of osteoporosis
- Weight loss, in severe cases, dystrophy
For the diagnosis of the patient, the following tests and procedures are prescribed:
- Fecal, blood, urinalysis-bapsose, coprogram, latent blood feces, general blood tests
- Biochemical blood tests
- Endoscopic and roentgenology studies
- Ultrasound of peritoneal organs
Therapeutic tactics for enteritis:
- Fighting with dehydration - copious drink, in severe cases, rehydration with special medicines
- is indicated. Removal of intoxication
- Enzyme preparation
- Preparations for the normalization of the microflora of the stomach and intestines
- Fixing agents
- Vitamin and mineral complexes
- In severe cases and according to indications - prescription of antibiotics
For chronic enteritis treatment strategy differs somewhat:
- Diet №4 - for life - ban on acute, irritating, friedand heavy dishes
- Enzyme preparations and medicines for improvement of intestinal motility
- Astringents based on herbs - decoctions of the bark of oak, St. John's wort
- Probiotics, vitamins, minerals
Prognosis in acute enteritis should be favorable treatment. In chronic processes, the duration of remission depends on the patients' compliance with the recommendations of the doctors.
Colitis - symptomatology, diagnosis, treatment tactic
Colitis is an inflammatory disease of the large intestine. The causes of the pathology:
- Infections - Salmonella, Proteus, Staphylococcus
- Complications for the following diseases: typhus, malaria, mumps, flu
- Own opportunistic flora
- Protozoan fauna - lamblia, amoeba
- Poor food
- Poisons - arsenic,heavy metals, poisonous fungi
- Pancreatitis, hemorrhoids
- Disturbance of metabolic processes - obesity, gout, hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland
- Prolonged constipation
- Dyskinesia of bile ducts
- Inflammatory glandsvanie adjacent organs - prostate, bladder
All colitis are divided into acute and chronic. Each type of pathology has its own characteristic symptomatology and principles of treatment. Acute colitis as an independent disease is very rare. Most often the inflammatory process proceeds in parallel with enteritis or gastroenteritis. Signs of an acute process:
- Diarrhea up to 20 times a day
- Body temperature rises to 39o C
- Pain in the colon area - intensifies before defecation
- Appetite loss
- Cal can be inhomogeneous with blood, mucus, stenching
Symptoms of chronic colitis:
- Morning diarrhea
- Sometimes diarrhea alternates with constipations
- "False urges"
- may be observed Meteorism, admit blood in feces
- Erysipelas - often colitis accompanied by gastritis
- Appetite reduction
- Frequent mood changes
- The nature of the bowel movement may vary depending on the cause causing the disease.
- The putrefactive process is a stench, an alkaline reaction of the environment. When fermented - a frothy stool, the medium - sour.
Treatment of acute colitis:
- Diet №4
- Saline laxative - 1 time for bowel cleaning
- Antibiotics, preparations of a number of sulfonamides - depending on bacterial infection
- Antispasmodics for pain relief - candles with papaverine
- Glucose, saline solution - intravenously for dehydration
- Preparations for cardiac support - according tothe need for
- Blood or plasma transfusion - in severe cases
Treatment of colitis takes 2 weeks, infectious diseases - up to a month. The forecast is favorable. Treatment of chronic colitis:
- Diet No. 4 - long, sometimes for life
- Drugs are selected depending on the causes of the disease and the location of the inflammatory process.
- Vitamin and mineral complexes for the prevention of hypovitaminosis
The diet is considered the main tool in the treatment of chronic diseasesof the large intestine. Patients are allowed to eat the following foods:
- Low-fat meat types - boiled, stewed, steamed
- Boiled fish of low-fat varieties
- Porridges only on water
- Kissels, juices
- Vegetables and fruits in boiled form - during periods of exacerbation of the disease. In the rest of the time - in the raw
Under strict prohibition falls:
- Black bread
- Any smoked meat - sausage, meat, fish, lard
- Fat pork
- Geese in any form
- Sour cream
- Any canned food - vegetable, meat, fish
- It is undesirable to drinkcold water
Treatment of chronic colitis is a long process. It is important not to allow the exacerbation of the disease, as it is possible to develop peritonitis, purulent inflammation of the bile ducts, liver abscess.
All inflammatory processes in the intestine are similar in symptomatology. But they differ in the diagnosis and methods of treatment. Only the attending physician can determine the correct diagnosis. Do not consider these diseases as something shameful - in the absence of proper treatment this can lead to death.
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