Sleep Disorders: Types and Causes

There are several types of sleep disorders, the most common include difficult falling asleep, early awakening, nightmares, snoring, superficial sleep and nocturnal enuresis. The causes of sleep disturbance are many, but mostly everything comes down to psychological overstrain of the body, when a person can not relax and escape from troubling thoughts.

Disorders of time and sleep mode

Sleep - a specific state of the body in which there is a restoration of energy reserves, the response of psychological experiences and active processing of the accumulated information during waking hours. Why is sleep disturbed, and in what form are the violations manifested?

One of the main disorders of sleep is a difficult falling asleep, usually occurring against the background of overexcitation. Different thoughts, experiences about the past day, plans for tomorrow, echoes of some expressed, and often unspoken grievances and unresolved conflicts, constantly turn in my head. It is very difficult to get rid of all this. With such a sleep disorder, there is a disturbance in the function of falling asleep: a person falls asleep very late and in a bad mood, unconsciously programming himself to continue this state after awakening. The other extreme: a person can not fall asleep, because the head is empty and hums like a transformer. This means that the psychological overstrain has become so strong that even thoughts do not appear.

Early awakening is a violation of sleep time: a person suddenly wakes up very early. Getting up from bed, he takes care of something, but soon realizes that he wants to sleep.

One of the violations of sleep is due to nightmares. Sometimes a person wakes up in a state of horror and panic, reflecting his experiences during sleep. Typical are vegetative changes: redness of the skin, sweat, increased pulse and respiration, increased blood pressure;there may be crying, crying and motor activity( resistance, struggle).

The ascendancy of is another disturbance of night sleep, expressed in movements during sleep without storing memory of it after awakening. The reasons for this can be very different( banal lack of sleep, neurological diseases( hyperactivity disorder in children, epilepsy, migraines), alcohol, drugs, etc.).Neurotic form of asphyxia develops after psycho-traumatic experiences and stressful overstrain. Sufficiently expressive behavior of the sleepwalker often reflects psycho-traumatic events and the accompanying experiences. Sufferers can enter into verbal contact with others, adequately respond to attempts to awaken them.

Also a violation of the function of sleep is due to a decrease in its quality. Let's say a person thinks that everything is all right with him: he fell asleep in time, did not wake up at night and woke up in time. Does he have a sleep disorder in this case? To check it is very simple: if there is a feeling of shattering quickly, drowsiness, anxiety, then the dream was substandard.

Nocturnal enuresis is expressed in involuntary urination during sleep. In the neurotic form is characteristic for children and adolescents.

Sleep disturbance: insomnia or superficial sleep

One of the problems with sleeping is a violation called "superficial sleep."A person easily wakes up from a minor external or internal signal, and then again for a long time can not fall asleep. And when he finally succeeds, his dreams turn into solid horrors. And sometimes even worse: he dreams of some endless repetition of his real actions - in the past or possible - in the future. Characteristically, having woken up, a person often for a while can not understand - was it actually or just a dream, and did he sleep at all? Such a dream can be even worse than nightmarish dreams, in which there is still the possibility of avoiding an oppressed reality, in them our psyche tries to somehow remove the accumulated tension, react to negative experiences, etc. But in tedious, pseudo-realistic dreamsthere is a profound violation of the processes of recovery, self-regulation of the psyche.

Often the word "insomnia" is used for sleep disorders, but this definition is, strictly speaking, not entirely accurate. There is no person who does not sleep at all. There is a so-called wolfish dream, when people, for a moment, closing their eyes, immediately fall into a drowsy state and then almost immediately leave it. At the same time it seems to them that they did not sleep at all. Such disorders most often occur in those who have long been in an emergency( for example, in military personnel in conditions of combat situation or in mothers, bedridden sick child).It is more correct to call sleep disorders by dissomnia, or insomnia, which refers to a violation of the quantity, quality or duration of sleep.