All types of hepatitis are divided into infectious, toxic, radiation and autoimmune. Like other diseases, the disease described in this article can have acute or chronic course. Moreover, in the second form, as a result of the gradual displacement of hepatocytes and their replacement by other cells, the development of cirrhosis or, worse, of oncological diseases of the liver is possible.
What are the types of hepatitis: clinical forms
Hepatitis is a liver disease characterized by its inflammation followed by death( necrosis) of liver tissue sites. Treatment and outcome of hepatitis depend on the causes that cause it.
What are the hepatitis, the symptoms of the disease and the methods of their treatment are described in this article.
There are 2 main forms of the clinical course of hepatitis:
1. The acute form of develops rapidly, within a few days or weeks. This type of hepatitis can last up to 6 months.
This type of hepatitis occurs as a consequence of:
- infection with the hepatitis virus;
- poisoning with drugs or toxins.
2. Chronic hepatitis lasts more than 6 months and results from:
- acute type of viral hepatitis B or C;
- autoimmune diseases;
- long-term use of certain medicines.
This type of hepatitis of the liver causes the gradual replacement of its cells( hepatocytes) by other cells. Ultimately, this can lead to the development of cirrhosis, and sometimes liver cancer.
Common symptoms of all types of hepatitis are manifested as follows:
- Jaundice occurs as a result of a metabolic disorder bilirubin, toxic to the body. When the liver functions, it accumulates in the blood, spreads throughout the body, deposited in the skin and mucous membranes and giving them a yellowish color.
- Most often, as a result of a violation of the outflow from the liver of bile, part of which gets into the blood and spreads through the body, itching appears: bile acids, deposited in the skin, greatly irritate it.
- Pain in the right hypochondrium. The human liver is in a capsule - a shell, which reacts sensitively to changes in its size. With an increase in the liver, the capsule stretches, which causes pain.
- Lack of appetite, nausea, eructation, bitterness in the mouth( especially after eating fatty foods) arise due to a violation of the digestive function of the liver.
- Bruises, bruising appear at the slightest trauma as a result of the fact that the liver does not produce special proteins and enzymes involved in blood clotting.
Modern classification of hepatitis depending on the etiology of
Depending on the etiology, the current classification of hepatitis looks as follows:
1. Infectious hepatitis:
a) viral( hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, hepatitis E, hepatitis F andhepatitis G);
b) bacterial hepatitis occur with chronopyrosis( acute infectious disease of humans and animals), as well as syphilis, etc.
2. Toxic hepatitis:
- for poisoning with various chemicals.
3. Radiation hepatitis( occur with radiation sickness).
4. Autoimmune hepatitis. Hereditary predisposition plays a significant role in this classification of hepatitis - the immune system of the patient perceives liver and bile duct cells as foreign, resulting in the body producing antibodies to the structural elements of this tissue.
What are viral hepatitis and how they are transmitted: hepatitis A and B
According to the classification of viral hepatitis, it is a group of common and dangerous infectious diseases for humans that are caused by different viruses and differ significantly in symptom and flow. However, since they all primarily affect the liver, they are often combined under the name "jaundice" - one of the most common symptoms.
What are hepatitis, how are they transmitted and what is the symptomatology of these diseases?
Hepatitis A, or Botkin's disease is the most common type of viral hepatitis, the incubation period of which is from 7 to 50 days. The onset of the disease is accompanied by a high body temperature and, in some ways, resembles the flu. After 2-4 days, the patient's urine darkens, acquiring the color of beer or strong tea, and the feces, on the contrary, become colorless. Then jaundice appears, and with her appearance the patient's condition improves.
Duration of the disease can vary from 1 week to 1.5-2 months, and the recovery period sometimes stretches to six months.
The first symptoms of hepatitis appear after the end of the incubation period, which can last from several weeks to 6 months.
Treatment. Hepatitis A has the most favorable prognosis, as it does not cause serious complications. Treatment of this type of hepatitis is carried out, as a rule, in a hospital, in the infectious department. Patients are prescribed bed rest, prescribe a special diet and hepatoprotectors - drugs that protect the liver.
Prevention. The method of transmission of this type of hepatitis is domestic, through dirty hands, and also when eating contaminated food or water. In the special risk zone, children. Therefore, the main measure of prevention - careful compliance with hygiene standards.
In addition to isolating the sick until recovery, chamber disinfection of their belongings and disinfection in the outbreak with chlorine-containing drugs, it is also established to monitor persons who have been in contact with patients. It is carried out for 35 days with the appropriate laboratory examination. Children under 14 years and pregnant not later than 7-10 days after a possible infection once injected with immunoglobulin donor intramuscularly.
Children are also recommended for vaccination against this type of hepatitis.
Hepatitis B, or serum hepatitis is a significantly more dangerous disease characterized by severe liver damage that causes the DNA-containing virus. Infection can occur through the blood, as well as during sexual intercourse and from the mother to the fetus.
The most common disease begins with an increase in body temperature, weakness, joint pain, nausea and vomiting. Perhaps, darkening of urine and discoloration of feces. Jaundice for hepatitis B is little characteristic. The defeat of the liver can be extremely difficult and in difficult cases lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Treatment. Requires an integrated approach and depends on the stage of the disease and the severity of the course of the disease. If acute hepatitis B proceeds in mild form, then the patient with good immunity successfully recovers independently( 90% of cases).But the doctor can correctly assess the condition. He also gives general recommendations on the regime of the patient, his nutrition, even if the patient does not need special treatment.
Prevention of .For the prevention of this type of hepatitis vaccination is usually carried out, as a rule, in the first year of life. It is believed that the duration of postvaccinal immunity to hepatitis B is at least 7 years.
Types of viral hepatitis C and D
What else are viral hepatitis and how to treat them?
Hepatitis C, or post-transfusion hepatitis is the most severe form of viral hepatitis;most often affects young people. The incidence of hepatitis C has recently increased. Infection usually occurs with blood transfusion or through non-sterile syringes;less often - through sexual intercourse or from mother to fetus.
You can survive with hepatitis C and completely recover. The probability of this is about 10-20%.But approximately 70-80% of cases develop a chronic form of the disease, which can lead to cancer or cirrhosis of the liver. In addition, having become infected, you can also become a carrier of hepatitis C. Viruses multiply in the body of the carrier, but they do not do much harm themselves. In such people, liver tests are normal and there are no signs of hepatitis with a liver biopsy. However, concealed progression is also possible. All infected need constant monitoring of the doctor, because the risk of activation of the disease they persist.
Treatment only in a hospital. When a combination of hepatitis C with other varieties of viral hepatitis, the patient's condition can dramatically worsen and lead to death.
Prevention. An effective vaccine that can protect a healthy person from infection, does not currently exist.
Hepatitis D, or delta-hepatitis differs from all other forms of viral hepatitis in that its virus can not reproduce in the human body separately. To do this, he needs a "partner" - the hepatitis B virus. Therefore, hepatitis D is a companion disease that complicates the course of hepatitis B.
Classification of viral hepatitis: types of hepatitis E, F and G
Below is described what other types of hepatitis and what activitiesshould be carried out for their prevention.
Hepatitis E is similar in appearance to hepatitis A, but in severe form it affects not only the liver, but also the kidneys.
The disease is widespread in countries with hot climates and poor water supply of the population.
Treatment. The forecast is favorable in most cases. The only group of patients for whom infection with hepatitis E can be fatal is women in the last trimester of pregnancy. In such cases, the mortality rate ranges from 9 to 40%, and the fetus almost always dies.
Prevention. Careful adherence to hygiene standards.
Hepatitis F has not been studied yet. To date, it has been established that the disease is caused by two different viruses: one was isolated from the donor blood, the second from the feces of a patient infected with hepatitis as a result of blood transfusion.
Symptoms: jaundice, fever, ascites( accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity), enlarged liver and spleen, increased levels of bilirubin and hepatic enzymes, changes in urine and feces, and signs of general intoxication.
Effective treatments for hepatitis F have not yet been developed. Used drugs from the group of interferons.
Hepatitis G resembles hepatitis C, but is less dangerous, since it does not promote the development of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. However, the combination of hepatitis C and G can lead to cirrhosis.
Diagnosis of viral hepatitis. As the symptoms of viral hepatitis largely coincide with each other, as well as with the symptoms of other viral infections, the patient should be diagnosed accurately and, consequently, the right treatment can be determined only on the basis of laboratory blood tests, when identifying markers that are individual for each virus. Having established the presence of these markers, as well as their ratio, determine the stage of the disease, its activity and the likely outcome. In order to follow the dynamics of the process, after a while, a second examination is performed.
Hepatitis of the liver of alcoholic etiology: photos, symptoms and treatment
When talking about what are hepatitis of the liver, the alcoholic form means inflammatory liver disease that occurs with prolonged( for several years) regular use of alcohol.
Splitting enzymes after a while "become unusable" and must be replaced with new ones. However, since in this case a set of enzymes can not be replenished, alcohol ceases to be processed by the liver, and toxins from it are not removed.
Diagnostics. Biochemical blood test, which shows an increase in the activity of liver enzymes - transaminases and pigment and bilirubin content.
Women are more likely than men to develop alcoholic hepatitis of the liver: the fair sex in the body contains less enzymes that can neutralize alcohol.
Biopsy of the liver - extraction of a mini fragment from it, followed by a microscopic examination of it. This method is rightfully considered the "gold standard" of diagnosis.
Symptoms of hepatitis of alcoholic etiology are expressed:
- with discomfort, pain and a feeling of heaviness in the right hypochondrium;
- weakness, rapid fatigue;
- by a sharp decrease in body weight;
- with nausea, vomiting;
- belches with bitter aftertaste;
- diarrhea after eating fatty foods or alcohol;
- by darkening of urine and fecal discoloration;
- yellowing of the skin, sclera of the eyes and mucous membranes;
- skin itching, an increase in body temperature up to 37 °.
Look at the photos of the symptoms of alcoholic hepatitis, presented below:
Degrees and treatment of toxic alcoholic hepatitis
There are four degrees of toxic hepatitis of alcoholic etiology:
I. No characteristic symptoms. The disease can be detected when examined by a doctor( liver enlargement), as well as by the results of liver tests.
II.There are severe and periodic pains in the right subcostal area. The enlargement of the liver is already quite persistent, with its palpation, painful sensations arise. Often appears jaundice of the skin and eyes. Patients feel weakness, they lose appetite, weight decreases.
III.In severe cases, alcoholic hepatitis causes an increase in the liver to such a size that it literally slides into the pelvic region. But with acute development of the disease this does not happen, because the hepatic cells do not have time to increase. On the contrary, without treatment and with continued intake of alcohol, the liver begins to decrease rapidly, as if returning to the rib. This may indicate the development of cirrhosis. Many patients with this background have liver cancer. Often in the III stage of alcoholic hepatitis appears ascites.
Treatment. After revealing the symptoms of alcoholic hepatitis, the treatment is complex, this allows for a long time to stabilize the patient's condition and prevent the development of liver cirrhosis. It should be remembered that it is possible to achieve success only with complete refusal of alcohol. It is also necessary to observe a strict diet, which the doctor appoints to each patient individually, and without fail to take vitamins and hepatoprotectors.
Other types of toxic hepatitis: causes, symptoms and treatment
By acting on the liver, toxins cause damage to its cells. In the case of mass cell death, acute liver failure develops. If the inflammation of the liver is moderately expressed, toxic hepatitis may eventually change into cirrhosis with characteristic clinical signs.
Causes of toxic hepatitis:
- poisoning with some types of drugs with a significant overdose( paracetamol, aspirin, analgin, tetracyclines, biseptol, levomycetin and others), as well as long-term use of a number of drugs even at recommended doses: isoniaz( for treating tuberculosis), allopurinol(in the treatment of chronic gout), azathioprine( immunosuppressant, used to prevent graft rejection reaction);
- intake and inhalation of toxic substances( organic dyes and industrial poisons);
- is another cause of toxic hepatitis - the consumption of poisonous species of mushrooms( most often pale toadstool, less often - fly agarics, stitches and morels).
Symptoms of toxic hepatitis:
- Increased body temperature of more than 38 °, general weakness, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting( maybe with blood), bitter taste in the mouth, bloating, diarrhea - these symptoms develop as a result of a violation of the outflow of bile.
- Bleeding from the nose, gums, small pinpoint hemorrhages on the skin - the result of the destructive effect of toxin on the vessel walls.
- Increased excitability or, on the contrary, inhibition, disruption of orientation in space - due to the toxic effect that poisons exert on nerve cells.
- Progressive jaundice, dark urine, light feces( bold, shiny) are the result of a violation of the outflow of bile by small intrahepatic bile ducts.
- Liver enlargement in size as a result of acute inflammation of the hepatic cells and replacement with their fatty tissue( fatty liver disease).
- Pain in the right upper quadrant due to acute inflammatory process in the liver.
These symptoms may subside for a while, then exacerbate again.
Treatment. Call an ambulance immediately. In connection with the risk of possible complications, after revealing systems of toxic hepatitis, treatment is conducted in a hospital and begins with the elimination of the factor that caused liver damage. In the case where the toxic substance is still in the body, gastric lavage and bowel cleansing are performed. From the diet is excluded fatty, fried and spicy food. In the early days, a bed rest is recommended, which improves blood circulation and liver function.
Knowing about what kinds of hepatitis there are, and having appointed a treatment in time, you can quickly achieve recovery of the patient. Timely treatment ends after 2-4 weeks from the moment of appearance of the first symptoms of recovery with the subsequent restoration of liver function.
Prevention. Care must be taken when working with toxic substances. It is not necessary to eat unknown or doubtful mushrooms, or to engage in self-medication, because medications, as well as herbal infusions, often have side effects and are capable of causing a serious blow to the liver, up to the development of toxic hepatitis.