Everyone knows that liquid mobile tissue moving along the blood vessels is blood. Usually people's knowledge of this substance is limited to the fact that it is red, carries oxygen, and its abundant loss is deadly to humans. In reality, everything is more complicated and the blood performs a lot of important functions due to its complex composition. One of the elements of the blood formula is the leukocytes, a separate group of cells, which are often referred to as "white blood".In general, the task of this group is to provide immune protection of the body. Accordingly, if there is a disease of the blood, then the immunity decreases, and, therefore, a person becomes vulnerable to the environment. Diseases associated with white blood cells usually affect a particular subgroup. So, neutropenia is a decrease in the number of contained neutrophils( the most common type of leukocytes, whose task is to fight with bacterial infections).The disease, especially that which has arisen in the child, creates a breach in the protection of the organism, and therefore it is very important to detect it in time and eliminate it.
- 1 Why does neutropenia occur
- 2 Symptoms of pathology in children
- 2.1 Common Neutropenia Symptoms( photo)
- 3 Diagnosis and treatment of
Why neutropenia occurs
The number of neutrophils in the total number of leukocytes is the most significant - they make up to 78% of this group. It is these cells that actively fight any type of bacteria that penetrated the child's body, .Cells are produced by the bone marrow, where they mature for two weeks. Entering the bloodstream, for 6 hours neutrophils circulate in it, trying to detect the danger. If the pathogen has been identified, the neutrophils are attached to it and, with the help of secreted toxic substances, kill it and then digest it. Based on the above, it is difficult to overestimate the importance of these cells.
What can trigger neutropenia? The number of neutrophils in the blood decreases, when a part of them is destroyed, the volumes of their production are combined or decreased. The following factors can influence the occurrence of such conditions:
- the child has malaria, tuberculosis, HIV and a number of other parasitic, viral and bacterial diseases;
- receiving a certain type of medications that can have a negative effect on the bone marrow( often, these are substances that are used in chemotherapy);
- in the body there is a deficiency of vitamin B12;
- pathologies of the congenital type, which depress the functions of the bone marrow;
- autoimmune cell disruption type;
- course of radiation treatment;
The most common cause of neutropenia doctors call bone marrow diseases( leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, myelofibrosis, etc.).
- in a number of cases can cause neutropenia and diseases of other organs. So, with hypersplenism, the spleen increases in size and too much blood cells die in it. Also cause a number of pancreatic diseases.
A very important point - it is necessary to clearly establish the type of the disease, because it will depend not only on the style of treatment, but also on its overall need. This will help to know the root cause of the disease. So, the following forms are distinguished:
- cyclic neutropenia implies constant fluctuations in the number of neutrophils. So, the state of the reduced number of these cells usually lasts up to 10 days, after which the indicators stabilize. Because of such temporary decreases in the intensity of the protective function of the body, bacterial processes occur very often;
- febrile type of the disease is a vivid reaction to the negative toxic effects on the body of various chemotherapeutics, products of destruction of tumor cells, etc. The most common cause of this form is the effect of infection;
- is the latest form of the disease - is autoimmune. The decrease in the number of neutrophils in this situation is due to the fact that the immune system begins to identify them as foreign agents and to fight them, producing antibodies for destruction. Neutrophils are either completely destroyed or glued together - somehow, they can no longer fulfill their basic function.
If a child under the age of one year is diagnosed as such, do not worry too much. Most likely, it is a benign form of the disease, in which the number of neutrophils in the blood constantly fluctuates, either upwards or downwards. Often the problem passes without additional treatment by three years. It is possible to classify a disease based on the extent of the lesion. Isolate neutropenia in the lung( the concentration of neutrophils at 1 μL more than a thousand), the average( the number of neutrophils from 500 to thousands) and severe form( less than 500).
Symptoms of pathology in children
The clinical picture of the disease differs in different patients - this is determined by the specific type of disease, the nature of its course and the general state of the body. As for the symptoms, there are no significant differences between the manifestations of neutropenia in adults and children. In mild form the disease does not give any bright manifestations, the only thing that changes is the incidence of various acute viral infections that can be easily treated. The medium-heavy form leads to frequent recurrences of acute respiratory infections and the formation of purulent foci( localization - oral cavity).In the rest the current is also often asymptomatic. And only a severe form of neutropenia gives vivid symptomatic manifestations, namely:
- symptoms of organism intoxication;
- elevated body temperature;
- frequent cases of severe forms of bacterial and fungal infections;
- on the mucous membranes foci of necrotic lesions appear;
- increases the risk of sepsis.
Severe form represents a real threat to the life of the child - if you do not start adequate treatment, then the risk of a lethal outcome increases dramatically.
It is also possible to describe symptoms based on the types of the disease due to its cause:
- is a cyclic form manifested by the presence of fever, headache and mucosal lesions in the mouth. Formed ulcers usually have a round shape and are not accompanied by signs of healing. Without treatment, the disease progresses and leads to the formation of calculus and further loss of teeth. Periodicity of the cycle - an average of 5 days every 3-4 weeks;
- febrile forms - a fever, increased sweating and a general feeling of weakness;
Because of the small number of neutrophils, the body is not able to respond explicitly to infection, so often it is not possible to detect its source, which makes it difficult to eliminate the underlying cause of neutropenia.
- autoimmune form is considered one of the most dangerous. Often it leads to serious complications in the form of attachment of bacterial infections.
Common Neutropenia Symptoms( photo)
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Diagnosis and treatment
To determine this disease, in addition to information from parents, child complaints and evaluation of the dynamics of blood pressure indicators, additional tests are assisted:
- blood test is taken several times a weeka long time( usually six months) in order to be able to evaluate the dynamics of the number of white blood cells;
- of the child is also tested for a number of diseases that could provoke such a problem;
- if there is an average or severe form of the disease, bone marrow puncture is required for the study;
- also examines the history of family members to identify possible causes of the problem in the child.
The first thing that physicians need to do is to eliminate the underlying cause, which most often is an infection. The course of treatment usually includes antibiotics, vitamins, preparations for the restoration of intestinal microflora and drugs that spur on and restore the immunity of the child .If a severe form with an extremely low number of neutrophils is diagnosed and there is a symptom such as fever, there is no time to clear up the reasons and immediately begin active antibacterial treatment( the drug is chosen to combat those pathogens that most often lead to the appearance of such a problem).To eliminate the source of the disease, the child's blood state is normalized.
Special attention should be paid to the cyclic form, since it is chronic. There are two main tactics: the introduction of drugs a few days before the expected onset of another deterioration and daily administration until the normalization of the blood condition or the administration of the drug in smaller doses, but daily on a regular basis. Such actions help to provide the child with a normal quality of life. When joining the infection, additional antibacterial treatment is required. The main emphasis, one way or another, is to strengthen the immune defense to prevent complications of .