Different types of anemia are considered to be one of the most common pathological conditions that occur in the practice of pediatricians. The causes provoking such conditions are numerous, which explains the frequency of their diagnosis. Consider one of the types of pathology - iron deficiency anemia in children of different ages.
- 1 Causes and why such a condition is threatened
- 2 Symptomatic manifestations of
- 3 Basic methods of treatment and prevention
Causes and why such a condition is threatened
The term "anemia" implies a group of diseases characterized by a decrease in the content of hemoglobin, erythrocytes or two components in one unit of bloodtogether .In the case of iron deficiency anemia in the synthesis of hemoglobin, glitches are observed, which are provoked by a lack of iron.
Anemia associated with iron deficiency occurs in about 4 cases of diagnosing anemia out of 5.According to the research conducted in this field, at the youngest age every second child suffers from this problem, in the senior - one in five. Statistically, the most probable age for the appearance of this problem is from six months.
Why can an iron deficiency occur in a newborn? During pregnancy, the fetus always receives the necessary amount of nutrients through the placenta, and most intensively this process occurs during the 28th to 32nd week of development. Still some time after a birth the kid uses so-called neonatal iron, received still in a womb of mother. It is spent on all important processes: synthesis of hemoglobin, enzymes, cell regeneration, replenishment of natural losses with secretions, etc. Approximately up to four months of age, the need for this element is met through mother's milk, but after reaching half a year, this source can compensate for the baby's need by only a quarter. If you do not take any action to replenish iron stores in your baby, then the state of anemia develops. It is preceded by several stages of deficiency:
- in the first stage of iron deficiency is not enough only in tissues, this is not reflected in the normal blood composition;
- , the second( latent) stage is still characterized by a normal hemoglobin level, but the deficit is already reflected in the serum iron level;
- and, finally, the stage of iron deficiency anemia, when all the blood elements are subject to change.
Thus, one of the main causes of the problem in a newborn is getting food with a low iron content. Among other reasons, we can distinguish:
- iron deficiency in the mother during pregnancy;
- a large loss of blood in the baby during delivery due to premature placental abruption;
- rupture of the cord during passage through the birth canal;
- abnormalities of the placenta and umbilical cord;
- hemolytic disease of the newborn.
In the period after birth at any age, the main reason for iron deficiency anemia is called inadequate intake of the substance .In older children, the problem can develop for the following reasons:
- an increased body requirement for this component;
- loss of iron, which are due to other factors besides natural;
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract associated with impaired suction function( erosive gastritis, ulcer, etc.);
- congenital anomalies in the structure of the digestive system;
- use in large quantities of products that inhibit absorption and absorption of iron by the body.
Children at risk who are born too large or premature, as well as children with a persistent enlargement of the lymph nodes without signs of dysfunctions and infections in the body( lymphatic-hypoplastic type of constitution).
The danger of this condition is that because of a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin, the body does not receive oxygen in full. It was noted that children with anemic syndrome are more susceptible to the negative impact of infections, they often have headaches, dizziness and tachycardia. In some cases, even the level of mental development suffers.
Symptomatic manifestations of
The main difficulty lies in the fact that in the light stages the problem does not manifest itself at all, which means that if it is not found accidentally during a general examination, it will develop and progress.
At the age of more than one year, the amount of hemoglobin should not be lower than 110 g / L of blood, at the age of 6 years the norm is increased to 120 g. With a long-term finding of this index at 90 and below, the following symptomatic manifestations of anemia develop:
- manifestationsfrom the epithelial cover. Mucous membranes and skin become pale, dryness appears, hair and nails become thinner. Often in children with this problem, stomatitis develops, there is a carious process, so-called croups are formed in the corners of the mouth;
- from the gastrointestinal tract appears a number of disorders - gastritis, nausea, belching, vomiting, unstable emptying, sometimes even hidden bleeding;
- appearance of shortness of breath and rapid heart rate;
- irritability, increased emotional excitability, gradual developmental lag( physical and psychomotor), increased fatigue and apathy;
- the liver and spleen increase in size;
- also suffer from muscle. This can be manifested as a weak physical development, and weakness of sphincters;
- decrease in the level of immune defense, as evidenced by frequent diseases.
The intensity of the described symptoms fluctuates against the background of a change in the severity of iron deficiency anemia.
To diagnose the problem, several laboratory studies will suffice to determine such indicators:
- hemoglobin level;
- the number of red blood cells;
- mean content and hemoglobin concentration in erythrocyte;
- indicator of the amount of hemoglobin in the dynamics;
- iron content;
- study of the effect of taking medications with iron.
To suspect the presence of iron deficiency anemia, parents can, by an indicative test for the presence of a bitturia symptom - it is enough just to give the child a little red beet. In a healthy person, in the presence of a sufficient amount of iron, the liver is able to completely discolour the beetroot dye with the help of iron-containing enzymes. If the iron is not enough, then the urine after eating this product will be painted pink. It is worth noting that this phenomenon can talk about another disease, but in any case it is an occasion to immediately go to the hospital.
The main methods of treatment and prevention
Treatment, as with any other disease, is determined by the cause that caused the pathological condition. If the baby lost a lot of blood during childbirth, then the primary task of doctors is to make him a transfusion. If a pregnant woman finds a problem, she is also promptly eliminated so that the child is not born with a similar pathology. In the event that the violation of absorption by the digestive system is caused by the presence of congenital pathological formations, surgical intervention may be necessary to eliminate them.
The fight against iron deficiency should be complex:
- elimination of the root cause of the problem;
- diet and rest of the child should be normalized;
- administration of preparations with iron content.
The most important element of deficit adjustment is a balanced diet. It is necessary to introduce in the diet of the child products containing the element in sufficient quantities and minimize the use of those that interfere with its absorption( products with preservatives, medicines with tetracycline).
It may seem that providing a child with enough iron is very simple - so, only 100 grams of beans contain 72 mg of this substance. But in fact, everything is more complicated. Iron in food products are divided into two groups of heme, which is assimilated by about 25%, and non-haem, which assimilates rarely reaches only 10%.Gem is found in meat and by-products, as well as in fish.
Also for the normalization of the condition of the baby it is necessary:
- to walk daily in the open air;
- create a favorable psychological climate in the family;
- avoid excessive physical exertion;
- to comply with measures to prevent viral diseases.
In spite of everything, the main element of treating a pathological condition is the intake of iron-containing drugs. They can be appointed exclusively by the attending physician, having calculated the individual need of the patient.
As for preventive measures, they should be taken at the stage of intrauterine development of the baby. If the mother has anemia diagnosed, the problem should be urgently eliminated, and prevention of fetal malnutrition and toxicosis is also necessary. Pregnant women often prescribe vitamin and mineral complexes. For the prevention of iron deficiency anemia after birth is necessary:
- high-grade breastfeeding;
- timely treatment of infectious diseases and problems with the gastrointestinal tract;
- the correct composition of the child's diet;
- enough outdoor activities;
- if the child is at risk, it is necessary to regularly do blood tests to promptly detect the problem.
Iron deficiency anemia, especially in advanced stages, can leave a significant negative impact on the health of the child. That is why it is necessary to closely monitor the state of your child and when there is a slightest suspicion of the development of a pathological condition to go to the hospital.