The ovarian follicular cyst is a benign neoplasm that forms from a ripe but not separated one, not released into the abdominal cavity, and then into the uterine tube, the dominant follicle.
Instead of separating from the ovary and continuing its "path" into the fallopian tube for possible encounter and fusion with the sperm, this follicle remained attached to the ovarian surface.
In this case, the follicle significantly increases in size( reaching 3 cm or more in diameter), but its rupture and release of the ovum( ovulation) does not occur.
Table of contents:
- Prevalence: who most often develops the ovarian follicular cyst?
- Why does the follicular ovarian cyst occur?
- Why does the follicular ovarian cyst occur?
- Symptoms of
- Treatment of
- Possible complications of cysts, or why treatment should not be delayed?
- Prevention of follicular cyst development
Prevalence: who most often develops the follicular ovarian cyst?
The ovarian follicular cyst is a very common disease. It occurs both in very young girls and in mature women in the first 5 years after the onset of menopause. The causes of the development of this disease are mainly related to quite serious hormonal disorders, therefore, little correlates with the patient's age.
Why does the follicular ovarian cyst occur?
The complex of factors provoking the development of the ovarian follicular cyst in patients is very diverse, one might even say - almost individual. Most often, we are talking about complex disorders in the cycle of hormone synthesis and the reaction of receptors of reproductive organs to them.
So often the reasons for the formation of a cyst lie in the presence of the patient's syndrome of polycystic ovaries( PCOS).
In this case, the ovarian receptors simply stop responding to stimulating hormones that cause normal ovulation. Ovulation does not occur. The follicle continues to grow, remaining on the surface of the ovary. So the cyst formation begins.
Undoubtedly, this disease is caused by a violation of the concentration and the ratio of hormones in the blood. Often, with the predominance of androgens in the blood, which inhibit ovulation, i.e.normal yield of the egg in the fallopian tube.
It is also possible to form a follicular cyst in utero. In this variant of the development of the disease, "quite different reasons" are triggered.
Studies show a high degree of hormonal intra-uterine fetal ovarian stimulation in this disease. This phenomenon often occurs under the influence of placental chorionic gonadotropin( UGS) and maternal estrogens.
If the pregnant woman does not receive adequate treatment, the intrauterine growth of the cyst in the fetus continues. The frequency of such pathology is 1: 2,500 newborns.
Diagnosis of the intrauterine cyst in the fetus is possible starting from the 26th week of pregnancy. Naming the reasons for its development, many authors talk about a hormonal surge that occurred in the mother's body during pregnancy and triggered the process of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries of the fetus. The reasons for such a surge may also be different.
Symptoms of this disease can be quite variable: from an almost asymptomatic course to acute pain in the abdomen, an increase in body temperature and general malaise. Most often, women with this pathology complain of a menstrual cycle, a dull, pulling pain in the lower abdomen( more often more or less localized, more often one-sided).
Quite often bleeding develops, significant or as a result of "swelling"( minor discharge of blood) during the intermenstrual period. Sometimes these discharges are very abundant, leading to the development of anemia.
An important diagnostic feature is a low( 36.8) basal temperature in the second half of the cycle, which confirms the absence of ovulation. That's why patients are urgently recommended daily basal temperature measurement( at least during one menstrual cycle.)
A very common symptom of such a cyst is the banal delay of menstruation. You can even say that this feature is the most frequent. It is such delays in the menstrual cycle, as instilled, and cause the anxious patient to see a doctor.
Treatment of such a cyst requires patient patience and a certain discipline to comply with all the doctor's recommendations, each of which plays a significant role on the way to recovery.
Treatment of cysts is a long, time-consuming and often very expensive process.
What kind of treatment is largely determined by the size of the cyst:
- If the follicular cyst is of small size - it is able to independently resolve to the beginning of menstruation under the influence of a changed hormonal background. In this case, in the absence of any complaints from the patient, treatment is not necessary. The cyst passes by itself. The patient and the doctor should only take all preventive measures in order to prevent the occurrence of a cyst again.
- If the cyst size exceeds 6 cm, the situation becomes somewhat more complicated. The probability that such a large cyst will resolve on its own is small, so often in such cases surgical treatment is necessary. In the same cases, the risk of complications increases significantly. This cyst becomes quite dangerous for the patient and therefore requires immediate surgical intervention.
Possible complications of the cyst, or why the treatment can not be delayed?
Torsion of the ovary - this complication means that the cyst displaces the ovary with its volume and weight, and in case of physical activity or intercourse, the ovary can twist around its axis: partially( 180 пере torsion), full( 360 пере torsion).This in turn leads to torsion and jamming of blood vessels, nerves surrounding the ovary. Ischemia and impaired innervation are extremely detrimental to the functional state of the ovary. That's why the treatment is so necessary. Symptoms of such a twist: a sharp acute pain in the abdomen after physical exertion, during or immediately after intercourse, dizziness, weakness, vomiting, a sharp deterioration in the general condition of the patient.
- A rupture of the cyst is a complication that is extremely dangerous and, most importantly, its development is very difficult to predict. Against the background of the general well-being, the patient suddenly develops symptoms such as: fainting, acute pain, cold sweat, weakness. Such a patient takes a forced semi-bent position because of acute pain in the abdomen. Often, it is even difficult for her to move independently. This complication is dangerous due to the high risk of peritonitis and requires immediate surgical intervention.
- Internal bleeding is the most dangerous complication of the cyst, which is constantly remembered by practicing doctors, but the patients also need to know. Internal bleeding can develop as suddenly as a cyst rupture. This complication can occur if the cyst is located inside one of the vessels or near the vessels of the ovary. Then, following the rupture of the cyst, there is a massive bleeding into the abdominal cavity, which presents a significant danger to the life of the patient.
Intraperitoneal bleeding is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- Acute skin blushing
- Severe weakness until the development of a pre-fainting condition and syncope
- Severe pain in the lower abdomen
- Sudden drop in blood pressure
Depending on the intensity of bleeding, both conservative and surgical treatment is possible. It is important to ensure the woman's peace and conduct a detailed examination to determine the amount of blood loss, localization of the ruptured cyst and the patient's condition. This will help the doctor choose the right tactics and the most effective treatment for each individual case.
Prevention of the development of the follicular cyst
After successful cure for the follicular cyst, it is important to take a number of preventive measures to prevent recurrence of the disease. First of all, this concerns the correction of the patient's psychoemotional state, the normalization of her hormonal background.
Oxygen therapy, spa treatment is also shown. It is also important to provide the patient with a full, rich in vitamins and microelements nutrition.
- Abdominal pains in ovulation