Laboratory diagnostic tests have been used for many decades by medical professionals around the world. They will never lose their relevance in connection with informativeness and high diagnostic value. Rather, on the contrary, every year there are more and more new methods and indicators, which supplement the comprehensive diagnostic biochemistry of blood. This analysis allows us to study in detail the constituent components of plasma, assess the functional capabilities of internal organs and determine the specific markers of a number of diseases. Decoding and interpretation of the results of the main indicators of biochemical analysis are described in this article.
Must be considered. ..
When evaluating any analysis, certain factors must be taken into account, which have a natural effect on the value of the obtained indicators. Always proceed from the understanding of the main principle of biochemical blood analysis. The object of his study is the blood plasma - its liquid part, obtained after the separation of the shaped elements. The composition of the plasma and the concentration of certain substances in it are affected by the amount of fluid in the body as a whole and in the vascular bed, in particular. This is especially true in young children.
The pattern is that on the background of dehydration( insufficient fluid intake or increased losses due to high temperatures, vomiting, diarrhea, etc.), an artificial increase in blood biochemistry results. And, on the contrary, excessive flooding of the body( massive intravenous infusion) causes a false decrease in the true value of the obtained indices.
Biochemical blood test - the main reference for assessing the functional abilities of internal organs
Evaluation of the total protein
The total protein is the aggregate of all protein plasma molecules, regardless of their molecular weight and structure complexity. Includes albumins, globulins, fibrinogen, high-activity immune plasma proteins, fibrinogen and other clotting factors. Determination of their concentration makes it possible to evaluate the intensity and direction of protein metabolism in the body: the predominance of synthesis or disintegration. The albumin affects most of all the amount of the total protein. The norm of the indicator and the interpretation of the deviations are given in the table.
|The norm of the total protein of the blood is 65-85 g / l|
|What is indicated by the rise of||What does the decrease of|
The danger of such a condition in increasing the density and blood viscosity, which disrupts microcirculatory processes in the body and can cause the formation of blood clots.
The danger of this condition in violation of the oncotic pressure of the plasma, which causes edema. There is a gradual disruption of the structure and functions of all organs and systems.
Evaluation of bilirubin
Bilirubin is one of the main pigmented connections of the body. In its formation and circulation involved erythrocytes, spleen, liver and bile excretory system. It is extremely toxic to tissues, so the index of its concentration in plasma reflects the degree of threat to life and health, as well as the functional capacity of the liver for its neutralization. Bilirubin is formed in the decay of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the spleen, from where it is sent to the hepatic cells to bind to glucuronic acid and render harmless. On the bile ducts, it is excreted along with the calves.
Practical interest is the interpretation of the excess of the norm of the bilirubin index, which is from 8 to 20.5 μmol / l. This is possible with:
- Enhanced destruction of red blood cells caused by toxic substances, enlarged spleen, autoimmune and infectious diseases;
- Liver diseases that manifest themselves by inflammation or destruction of the hepatic cells, which causes a decrease or loss of their ability to bind bilirubin;
- Disturbance of outflow of bile on biliary tracts in the presence of stones, inflammatory process or pitting of the pancreas with localization in the head.
Evaluation of ALT and AST
All tissues in which active metabolic processes occur contain many enzymes that accelerate metabolism. In this respect, the liver is the leader by their number. Less enzymes in the heart muscle. The most important enzymes that determine biochemical analysis are ALT or ALT( alanine aminotransferase) and AST or AsAT( aspartate aminotransferase).These enzymes of blood have a high enzymatic activity, and therefore perform their functions exclusively within the cells. Normally, a small part of them enters the bloodstream during blood supply and metabolic reactions. This formed the basis for the normal values of the parameters of ALAT and ASAT, which are 0.1-0.8 μmol /( h * ml) and 0.1-0.45 μmol /( h * ml), respectively.
Practical interest can only be the interpretation of the excess of these standards. This is possible with:
- Toxic effects on the body;
- Inflammation and destruction of hepatic cells with active hepatitis and the initial stages of cirrhosis( more due to ALT);
- Inflammation and destruction of heart tissue as a result of myocardial infarction( more due to ASAT).
ALT and AST are not toxic to the body. These indicators are diagnostic markers of liver and heart diseases, which are accompanied by massive destruction of cells. Diagnostic significance is the excess of their norm two or more times.
Evaluation of urea and creatinine
Lowering blood cholesterol level
To evaluate the results of the protein metabolism direction in the body, along with the total protein index, allows determination of the level of creatinine and urea in the blood. Their norm is:
- 50-115 μmol / l for creatinine;
- 4.2-8.3 μmol / l for urea.
Both of these compounds refer to the metabolites formed during the breakdown of the protein. Therefore, almost always decryption is required only if there are indicators exceeding the norm. If any, one can think of:
- Renal pathology accompanied by renal insufficiency;
- Massive destruction of muscle tissue as a result of trauma, dystrophy, inflammation or disruption of blood supply;
- Intoxication and liver disease;
- Excessive use of protein and chemical additives containing protein metabolites.
Increased cholesterol - the main cause of development of arteriosclerosis of vessels
Assessment of cholesterol and its fractions
Cholesterol refers to metabolites of lipid metabolism. Its physiological role for the body is very high, since it participates in the synthesis of steroid hormones and cell membranes. In the body is in three main forms, which correspond to the name of the indicator of biochemistry:
- Free cholesterol - the norm to 5.2 mmol / l;
- Low-density lipoproteins( LDL) - norm up to 2.2 mmol / l;
- High-density lipoproteins( HDL) - a norm of 0.9-1.9 mmol / l.
From a practical point of view, it can be interesting to decipher both the increase and decrease in the concentration of these substances in the blood plasma. Registration of indicators of free cholesterol or LDL, exceeding the norm, indicates a high risk of development of arteriosclerosis of the vessels. Typically, this is possible with metabolic disorders due to obesity, diabetes mellitus or excessive intake of cholesterol with food. This increase leads to a decrease in HDL.The enhancement of the latter is not dangerous, but rather, on the contrary, is beneficial, since this kind of cholesterol-protein combination is responsible for cleaning the vessels of free cholesterol.
If the values of free blood cholesterol obtained in the analyzes are below the normative values, this indicates the depletion of lipid stocks in the body, which threatens to violate the synthesis of steroid hormones, especially sexual ones. The danger of such a condition is that if it is preserved for a long time, the structure of cells of vital organs that can not restore it can occur.
Biochemical blood test is a powerful tool in the hands of a knowledgeable specialist. Its correct interpretation will help in a timely manner diagnose a number of diseases, determine their threats and the effectiveness of the treatment.